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68C Ch.18 Ph.1 T.6

Hole's Essentials of A&P Chapter 18: Acids and Bases

Electrolytes substances that release ions in water
Acids electrolytes that release hydrogen ions H+ in water ie HCl releases H+ and Cl-
Bases electrolytes that release ions that bond with hydrogen ions ie NaOH releases OH- when placed in water
pH of 7.0 means what equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
Buffers chemicals that resist pH change, combine with hydrogen ions when these ions are in excess, or donate hydrogen ions when depleted.
HCO3 Bicarbonate
H2CO3 Carbonic acid
Ion an atom or group of bonded atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making the negatively or positively charged
what is beneficial about the high acidity of skin helps kill microbes before they are able to enter body
Aerobic respiration process produces CO2 and H2O as its waste products
Anaerobic respiration process produces lactic acid which adds hydrogen ions to body fluids
Aerobic metabolism adequate oxygen is available, supplies your cells with energy. Body breaks down fat and sugars to produce ATP
Anaerobic metabolism creation of energy through combustion of carbohydrates without oxygen. Lungs cannot put enough oxygen into bloodstream to keep up with muscle demands
when O2 is fully utilized additional energy can by released by metabolizing glycogen to pyruvate and lactate Anaerobic metabolism
Two main features of anaerobic metabolism Glycogen depletion, lactic acidosis
chemical compounds that function in body to minimize changes in pH by converting strong acids and bases to weak acids and bases Chemical buffer systems
Bicarbonate buffer system excess H+ ions will combine with bicarbonate ions to form carbonic acid, if conditions are alkaline carbonic acid will dissociate to release bicarbonate ions and H+ ions
Phosphate buffer system important in control of H+ ion concentration in tubular fluid of nephrons and in urine
Protein buffer system consist of plasma proteins such as albumins and proteins in cells including hemoglobin of RBC's. when pH falls, amino groups accepts H+ ions
Respiratory excretion of Carbon dioxide regulates H+ ion concentration by controlling rate and depth of breathing, physical exertion causes CO2 to increase which results in increase of carbonic acid.
Renal excretion of Hydrogen H+ ion will be placed in urine while bicarbonate will return to body, nephrons help regulate
Normal levels of PaCO2 35-45 mmHg
Normal levels of Bicarbonate 22-26 mEq/L
Process of interpreting ABG's 1.start with pH 2.Assess PaCO2 3.Evaluate metabolic indicators (HCO3)
Acidosis increase in blood carbonic acid or decrease in bicarbonate, pH below 7.35
Alkalosis decrease in carbonic acid or increase in bicarbonate, pH greater than 7.45
Four basic types of imbalance a.Respiratory acidosis b.Respiratory alkalosis c.Metabolic acidosis d. Metabolic alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis excess of CO2 in blood, brought on by conditions that hinder pulmonary ventilation, labored breathing, cyanosis
Respiratory Alkalosis decrease in dissolved CO2 in blood, increase blood pH, lightheaded, tingling
Metabolic Acidosis caused by decrease HCO3 and decreased pH or increase in metabolic acids, rapid deep breathing
Metabolic Alkalosis caused by relative increase of HCO3 in blood, brought on by non-respiratory losses of acids from body or by accumulation of bases, decreased rate and depth of breathing
Why do hydrogen ion secreted into the tubule lumen react with sodium bicarbonate to prevent the urine from becoming to acidic
In respiratory acidosis the kidneys will retain increased amounts of bicarbonate to increase pH True
The average adult takes in approximately ________of water daily. 2500 mL
An increase in plasma carbon dioxide will stimulate a(n) _______in respiratiory rate and a(n) _______ renal secretion of hydrogen ions increase, increase
Any solution which has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution is a(n) ________ solution hypotonic
The thirst center of the body is located in the _______. hypothalamus
Created by: ajwildasin30