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68C Ch.16 Ph.1 T.6

Hole's Essentials of A&P Chapter 16: Respiratory System

Name the organs in the upper respiratory tract nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
Name the organs in the lower respiratory tract larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Paranasal sinuses air filled spaces located within frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary bone and open into the nasal cavity, lighten the skull and act as resonance chambers for sound
Name the subdivisions of the pharynx Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Eustachian Tubes open into the nasopharynx, provides connection to the middle ear, permits equalization of pressure between external and middle ear
pharynx passageway for food, produce the sounds of speech
larynx prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea, composed of cartilage, muscle and other connective tissue, houses vocal cords
cricoid cartilage ring shaped mass of cartilage, found at the base of the larynx
trachea tube descending from larynx branching into right and left main bronchi, semi-flexible tube lined with ciliated mucous membranes w/ goblet cells
nasal conchae bones that curl out from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity, increase surface area, support mucous membrane which line cavity
bronchioles small tubes of smooth muscles with no cartilage that branch into smaller aveolar ducts
Lungs occupy cavity of the thorax that effect aeration of blood, composed of tubular structures and alveoli bound together by elastic connective tissue,separated by mediastinum
Intrapleural space potential space between visceral and parietal pleura that contains thin layer of serous fluid which serves as lubricant to allow sliding movement between lungs and chest wall
Microscopic terminal chambers surrounded by capillary network, continuous gas exchange occurs through walls of alveoli Alveolus
reduces surface tension so alveoli increase, mixture of lipids and proteins surfactant
breathing or ventilation is movement of air from outside the body into and out of alveoli Pulmonary ventilation
considered the main muscle of inspiration, contraction expands thoracic cavity vertically, innervated by phrenic nerve Diaphragm
forced inspiration contraction of external intercostal muscles, raise the ribs and elevate sternum, expands the thoracic cavity horizontally
accessory muscles help pull thoracic cage further upward and outward ie pectoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid
expiration passive process, action decrease or shrink thoracic cavity and increase pressue, air will rush out until pressure is equalized, end of normal expiration
forced expiration contraction of internal intercostals, abdominal viscera, focus diaphragm higher
different intensities during inhalation and exhalation move different volumes of air into and out of lungs, different volumes can be measured by spirometer Respiratory volumes
volume of air inspired or expired during normal respiratory cycle 500mL Tidal volume TV
maximum air that can be inspired beyond normal tidal inspiration during forced 3000-3300 mL Inspiratory reserve volume IRV
Expiratory reserve volume ERV amount of air can be expired beyond normal tidal expiration during forced 1000-1200 mL
Residual volume RV amount of air remains in lungs after maximum forced expiration, cannot be directly measured, air allows blood to continue gas exchange in alveoli
Vital capacity amount of air person can exhale after taking deepest breath possible 4500-5000mL TV+IRV+ERV
Total lung capacity varies with age, sex, body size, position defomities and disease processes can affect, 5700-6200mL vital capacity+RV
controls both inspiration and expiration ie medulla oblongata, pons brainstem
area located in the medulla oblongata sensitive to slight changes in CO2 and H+ in the CSF, raises tidal volume chemosensitive
detect levels of O2, CO2 and pH in blood, stimulates receptors increasing breathing rate peripheral chemoreceptors
covers the walls of the pleural cavity parietal pleura
oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse through alveoli and capillary walls through.. partial pressure
surface tension in the pleural cavity is reduced by surfactant
primary cancers of the lungs usually arise in the bronchial epithelium
the force responsible for normal expiration mainly comes from elastic recoil of tissues in the lungs and thoracic wall
neurons most important for stimulating the diaphragm are located in the dorsal respiratory group
the walls of the alveoli contain simple squamous epithelium
why is the cartilage of the trachea shaped like a C instead of an O so when swallowing the esophagus may expand behind it
Created by: ajwildasin30
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