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Chapter 2 chemical Basis of Life

Chemistry Deals with composition of substance and hoe they change
Knowledge of chemistry Necessary for understanding of physiology because of the importance of chemicals in body pressure
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
All Matter is composed of Elements, 92 of which occur naturally
Elements are the simplest Form of matter and identified by one or two letter symbols (Oxygen-O, Iron-Fe)
Living organisms require about 20 elements, of which carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,and nitrogen are most abundant.They compose 95% of living organisms.
Elements are composed of Atoms; atoms of different element vary in size and in how they interact
Atoms are The smallest particle of an element retaining all the properties of that element
An atom consists of A nucleus containing protons and neutrons, with electrons in orbit around the nucleus
Protons with A positive charge, are about equal in size to neutrons, which have no change
Electrons Are much smaller and bear a negative charge
An electrically neutral Atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons
The number of protons Denotes the atomic number of an element; the number of protons plus the number of neutrons equals the atomic weight
Atoms form Bonds by gaining,losing,or sharing electrons
Electrons are found In shells around the nucleus
The first energy Shell hols two electron; the other energy shells each hold eight electrons when on the outside
Atoms with Incompletely filled outer shells tend to be reactive to form stable outer shells of 8 electrons
When atoms Gain or lose electrons they become ions with a charge. Whether they gain or lose will depend on how many they have in the outer shell to start with
Oppositely charged ions attract each other and form an ionic bond
Anion Ion with a negative electrical charge
Cation Ion with a positive electrical charge
Covalent Bonds Are formed when atoms share electrons (equally) to become stable with filled outer shells
Two pairs of electrons Shared between atoms for a double covalent bond
Polar Covalent Bonds Water molecule
Unequal sharing Of electrons between atoms
results in Molecules Having oppositely charged ends
Give Properties That enable substances to be dissolved
Water Known as a Universal Solvent since it can dissolve most substance
Molecule is Formed when two or more atoms combine from the same object
If atoms of the same Element bond, it produce molecules of that element (elemental molecules such as O2 and N3)
If atoms of different Elements combine, the molecule can also be called a compound
Compounds Always have a definite kind and number if atoms (C6H12O6, NaCl, H2SO4)
Chemical reaction Occurs as bonds are bonds formed or broken between atoms,ions, or molecules
Those changed by the reaction Are the reactants those formed are the product
Two or more atoms or molecules Can be joined during synthesis (A+B=AB)
Larger molecules can Be broken into smaller ones in decomposition reactions (breaks down)(AB+CD-AC+BD)
Reverside reactions are symbolized by using two arrows
Catalysts Influence the rates of chemical reactions (in the body are usually enzymes)
Exchange reaction Occur as parts of molecules trade places (TRADE PLACES)
Substances that release Ions in water are called electrolytes (sport drinks, pedialyte)
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions (H+) in water are called acids (turns litmus paper from blue to red)
Electrolytes that release hydroxyl ions (OH-) in water are called bases (alkalines)
The concentration of H+ and OH- In the body are very important to physiology A. H+ and OH- from water which is neutral B. Balance of what is left over or higher H+ or OH- determines the pH of the solution
pH represents the concentration (quantity hydrogen ions) [H+] in solutions
A pH of 7 indicates a neutral solution With equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxyl (OH) ions.
A.pH of zero to less than 7 indicates The presence of more hydrogen ions, and thus the solution is more acidic, a pH greater than 7 or 14 indicates more hydroxyl ions, or a basic or alkaline
B.Between each whole number of the pH scale there is a tenfold difference in hydrogen in concentration
A. Change of one whole number Represents a 10 fold change in pH
B. A change between two whole numbers Represents a 10 times 10,100 fold change
pH Scale 0-7 acidic 7-14 alkaline 7- base
Acid-alkali neutralization is the same reaction That naturally ionizes water to create hydrogen and hydroxide ions
When acids and alkali are mixed together Equal proportions, they neutralize each other form water H2O
Chemical That resist pH change
Combine with hydrogen ions When these ions are in excess or they donate hydrogen ions when ions are depleted
Found in all body fluids Combine with excess H+ and OH- to make them weaker and bring levels into homeostatic range
The pH of human blood About 7.4 (ranges 7.35-7.45), outside this range and a person could die. Homeostatic mechanism may regulate pH. (acidosis or alkalosis)
bicarbonate buffer system Blood, neutralize stomach acid before it enters small intestine is reduced
Phosphate buffer system Kidneys and urine production
Protein buffer system Plasma proteins,hemoglobin or red blood cells (part of blood)
Created by: moopphile16



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