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Anatomy 1.5

Blood Vessels & Blood

Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heard and conveys it toward the tissues.
Tunics The layers of an artery are vein.
Lumen The hollow inner core of an artery through which blood flows.
What kind of blood do arteries convey? Oxygenated blood (also called aerated blood or arterial blood)
What kind of arteries do not carry oxygenated blood? Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated (or venous) blood rather than oxygenated blood.
What are the three Tunics (also called coats or layers) of an artery? Tunica Intima, Tunica Media, Tunica Adventitia.
Tunica Intima or Interna This is the inner layer of the artery. It is composed of a lining of endothelium.
Tunica Media This is the middle layer of the artery. It is composed of smooth muscles and elastic fibers. This is usually the thickest layer.
Tunica Adventitia or Externa This is the outer layer of the artery. It is composed mainly of fibrous connective tissue and elastic fibers. It helps hold vessels open & prevents tearing of the vessel walls during body movement.
What does Endothelium do? This Endothelial tissue is a continuous layer of cells which lines the entire inner surface of the cardiovascular system (heart & all blood vessels).
What are the two size classifications of arteries? Large & medium sized.
Large Sized, Elastic or Conducting Arteries Larger in diameter than the medium arteries. These arteries conduct blood to the muscular arteries. The Tunica Media contains more elastic fibers & less smooth muscle.
What are some examples of Conducting Arteries? The aorta and it's large branches, the innominate, the common carotid, the subclavian, and the common iliac arteries.
Medium Size, Muscular or Distributing Arteries These arteries distribute blood to the various parts of the body. The Tunica Media contains more smooth muscle & less elastic tissue.
What are some examples of Distributing Arteries? The axillary, brachial, radial, intercostal, mesenteric, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Arterioles Very small, almost microscopic arteries that deliver blood to the capillaries. These are considered the terminal branches of an artery.
Vaso-Constriction A decrease in the size of the lumen by the constricting of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessel.
Vaso-Dilatation An increase in the size of the lumen by the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessel.
Which size artery is more capable of vaso-constriction and vaso-dilatation The medium sized arteries are capable of greater constriction and dilatation due to the arteries containing more smooth muscle.
Venules Small veins that collect blood from the capillaries and drain it into the veins.
Veins Blood vessels which convey blood away from the tissues and returns blood back to the heart. Generally veins carry venous or deoxygenated blood.
What kind of vein carries oxygenated (arterial or aerated) blood? The Pulmonary Vein is the exception to the rule and carries oxygenated blood.
What are the three tunics of the venules? Tunica intima: composed of endothelium; tunica media: has only a few scattered smooth muscle fibers; tunica adventitia: found only in larger venules.
How do the tunica of veins differ from the tunica of arteries? The tunica media of veins are thinner than in arteries and they contain relatively little smooth muscle and elastic fibers.
What are the two sets of veins in the extremities? There are superficial and deep sets of veins in the extremities.
What do the valves in veins do? These valves prevent blood from circulation backwards.
Do veins run parallel or perpendicular to arteries? The run parallel.
Tributaries Something smaller which flows into something larger.
Vaso Vasorum Blood vessels which supply blood vessels. They penetrate the tunica adventitia and the deeper tunica media of the larger vessels (arteries and veins).
Anastomosis The union of branches of two or more arteries which supply the same body region. Also referred to as an end union or joining together of blood vessels.
What is the natural communication between two vessels? Anastomosis
What is the most common example of anastomosis? The "Circle of Willis" of the brain.
What provides alternate routes for blood to reach a tissue or organ? An anastomosis between arteries.
Collateral Circulation An alternate route to a body part through an anastomosis. Circulation of blood through a secondary channel, in order to bypass an obstruction in the main channel.
Venae Comitantes Accompany Veins. Refers to two or more veins which accompany an artery, usually present with the deep arteries of the extremities.
Bifurcation The splitting into two branches.
Trifurcation The splitting into three branches.
The average body contains how much blood? Approximately 5 quarts.
What is the viscosity of blood compared to water? The viscosity of blood is approximately 4.5-5.5 times the viscosity of water.
What is the pH of blood? Blood has a pH between 7.35 and 7.45, making it slightly alkaline or base.
Why is the pH of blood important? The pH of blood (between 7.35 and 7.45) is important because most of the enzymes in our body function best at this same range.
What is pH? A scale which measures whether something is an acid or a base/alkaline.
What are the two portions of whole blood? 1) formed elements/corpuscles, 2) plasma
Plasma The liquid portion of whole blood. Makes up %55 of the volume of blood.
Formed elements/corpuscles The solid portion of whole blood. Makes up %45 of the volume of blood.
Capillaries Microscopic vessels that carry blood from the arterioles to the venules. Their function is to permit the exchange of nutrients (oxygen) and wastes (carbon dioxide) between blood & tissue cells.
What are the function of the blood related to transportation? Blood transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, wastes, hormones (responsibility of the red blood cells).
What is the function of the blood related to temperature? The blood regulates the body temperature by removing heat from active areas such as the skeletal muscles and transporting it to other areas of the body.
What is the average temperature of blood? 100.4 slightly higher than the body temperature of 98.6.
What is the function of the blood related to pH? Blood contains buffers to control pH, so that plasma can resist any change in pH.
What is the function of the blood related to water? Blood maintains water balance and a constant environment for tissue cells.
What is the function of blood related to disease and infection? Blood defends again disease and infection. This is the reponsibility of the white blood cells.
What is the function of the blood related to hemorrhaging? Blood prevents hemorrhage which is accomplished by our platelets or thrombocytes.
Erythrocytes Red blood cells. Biconcave in shape, life span of 120 days
oxy-hemoglobin This is formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin. This occurs in the capillaries of the lungs.
carbamino-hemoglobin This is formed when carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin. This occurs when oxy-hemoglobin is in the capillaries of the tissues, oxygen is released and carbon dioxide is picked up by the hemoglobin molecule.
carboxyhemoglobin This is formed when carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin. When it is formed, it deprives the red blood cells of oxygen.
heme The non-protein portion of hemoglobin which contains iron and is responsible for making blood red.
globin The protein portion of hemoglobin.
What are the two factors or portions of hemoglobin? heme, which is the non-protein portion, and globin which is the protein portion.
Which factor in hemoglobin makes the blood red? heme does, it is the part that contains iron.
Erythopoiesis The process of producing red blood cells.
Leucocytes white blood cells. These have a nucleus but no hemoglobin. They help our body fight against infection.
What are two main groups of leucocytes? granulocytes and agranulocytes.
Granulocytes White blood cells which have granules in the cytoplasm which are visible under a microscope. These blood cells develop in red bone marrow.
Agranulocytes White blood cells which have granules that are NOT visible under a light microscope.
Myeloid tissue Red bone marrow
What are the three types of Granulocytes? neutrophils or polymorphonuclear, eosinophils or acidophils, and basophils
What are the two types of Agranulocytes? lymphocytes and monocytes
Neutrophils/polymorphonuclear leukocytes These granulocytes are the most abundant of all white blood cells. They digest harmful bacteria.
Eosinophils or Acidophils These granulocytes increase in number in allergic conditions. They release histamines.
Basophils The granulocytes increase during chronic infections and during the healing process from an infection.
Lymphocytes These agranulocytes develop from lymphoid tissue. They increase when you have a viral infection and they help form antibodies at the site of inflammation.
Monocytes These agranulocytes develop in myeloid tissue. They digest cellular debris and foreign particles. They are the clean up crew.
Diapedesis This is the process by which leukocytes can leave the blood stream through an unbroken capillary wall.
Phagocytes Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes are all phagocytes. They have the ability to engulf and digest harmful foreign substances.
Thrombocytes or Platelets These are the smallest of the formed elements. They do not have a nucleus and they develop in the red bone marrow. They help in the clotting process.
What formed elements help to form clots? Thrombocytes or platelets
Erythrocytosis An increase in the number of red blood cells.
Erythropenia or erythrocytopenia A decrease in the number of red blood cells.
Leucocytosis An increase in white blood cells.
Leucopenia or leucocytopenia A decrease in the number of white blood cells.
Thrombocytosis An increase in the number of thrombocytes.
Thrombopenia or thrombocytopenia A decrease in the number of thrombocytes (platelets)
"osis" increase
"penia" decrease
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis The formation or production of blood (in general).
Leucopoiesis or leukopoiesis The formation of white blood cells.
Thrombopoiesis The formation of thrombocytes.
Serum The plasma minus the clotting proteins. The fluid which remains after a blood clot has formed.
Plasma This is the amber colored portion of blood which is left over after the formed elements are removed from blood. "stream in which blood cells travel"
What does plasma carry? In addition to carrying blood, plasma carries nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins (clotting factors), hormones, and proteins.
What are the components of plasma? water, proteins, salts, lipids, glucose.
What percentage of plasma is water? 92%
What percentage of plasma is proteins? 6-8%
What are the proteins in plasma? serum albumin, serum globulin, fibrinogen
Coagulation The process of blood clotting or clot formation.
What are the substances which promote clotting? thromboplastin (thrombokinase or cephalin), prothrombin, calcium, fibrinogen, vitamin K.
What are the substances which inhibit clotting? antithrombin, antiprothrombin (heparin)
Fibrin A thread of gel-like substance which forms over a cut which entraps blood and forms a clot.
What is the yellow junk that oozes out of a cut after it begins to scab? Serum, the fluid which remains after a blood clot has formed!
Granulocytes end in what suffix? phils
Agranulocytes end in what suffix? -cytes
Does calcium inhibit or promote clotting? Calcium promotes clotting.
Does vitamin K promote or inhibit clotting? Vitamin K promotes clotting.
Does heparin promote or inhibit clotting? Heparin inhibits clotting.
"poiesis" formation or production
Created by: kellyrb



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