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Relig. Wars (Ch. 15)

Habsburg-Valois Wars (1519-1559) France had kept the Holy Roman Empire from controlling all of Germany, while inadvertently helping Lutheranism to spread. Major reason for Germany's inability to unify.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559 (1559) Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16th century). These wars had been political in nature (and thus not religious) since both France and the Holy Roman Empire were Catholic.
Philip II (1556-1598) Like his father, Charles V, fanatically sought to re-impose Catholicism in Europe. Under Philip, Spain became the dominant country in Europe: “Golden Age” of Spain.
Escorial new royal palace (and monastery and mausoleum) was built in the shape of grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Lawrence. Symbolized power of Philip and commitment to his Catholic crusade.
Battle of Lepanto (1571): Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece. Spain’s religious fervor in its battle with the Turks was reminiscent of the earlier Christian Crusades. Ended the Ottoman threat in the Mediterranean.
Dutch Revolt William I (William of Orange) (1533-1584), led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition. Philip sought to crush the rise of Calvinism in the Netherlands.
William of Orange (1533-1584), led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition. Philip sought to crush the rise of Calvinism in the Netherlands
United Provinces of the Netherlands (1581) (Dutch Republic) Received aid from England under Elizabeth I. Major blow to Philip’s goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire.
Spanish Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) The 10 southern provinces remained under Spanish control
Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”) (Philip's wife) Had tried to reimpose Catholicism in England.
Elizabeth I reversed Mary’s course via the “Elizabethan Settlement”. Elizabeth later refused Philip’s request for marriage. Elizabeth helped the Protestant Netherlands gain independence from Spain.
Spanish Armada (1588) Spain's attempt to invade England ended in disaster. England had smaller but better navy and weather was bad. Signaled the rise of England as a world naval power. Decline of Spain’s “Golden Age”.
French Civil Wars (9 wars 1562-1598) After death of Henry II in 1559 power struggle between 3 noble families ( Valois, Bourbon, Anti-B Guise) for the Crown ensued. Valois family fragile control. Between 40-50% of nobles became Calvinists (Huguenots)—many were Bourbons.
Catherine de Medicis dominated 3 French kings from 1559 to 1589. Fought hard to maintain Catholic control in France.
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre (1572) Marriage Margaret of Valois to Protestant Huguenot Henry of Navarre (reconcile Catholics and Huguenots). Rioting= leader of Catholic aristocracy, Henry of Guise, had a leader of Huguenot party murdered. Catherine ordered massacre of Calvinists
War of the Three Henry’s initiated by St. Bartholomew Day Massacre. Civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Bourbons.
Henry IV (Henry of Navarre)(1589-1610) 1st Bourbon king. Rise to power ended French Civil Wars and placed France on gradual course towards absolutism. Politique. Converted to Catholicism to gain Paris. Privately Calvinist.
politique Sought practical political solutions (rather than ideological ones like Philip II): somewhat Machiavellian in nature.
Edict of Nantes (1598): Henry IV granted degree of religious toleration to Huguenots. Permitted Huguenots the right to worship privately. Public worship not allowed. Huguenots not allowed to worship at all in Paris and other staunchly Catholic cities.
Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) Most important war of the 17th century. Failure of the Peace of Augsburg, 1555: given German princes the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the official religion of their states.
Bohemian phase Defenestration of Prague (1618): triggered war in Bohemia. Protestant forces were eventually defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia.
Defenestration of Prague (1618): triggered war in Bohemia. HRE placed severe restrictions on Protestantism. 2 HRE officials were thrown out window and fell 70 feet below. The emperor then sought to annihilate the Calvinist nobility in Bohemia.
Danish Phase represented the height of Catholic power during the war. Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634). Edict of Restitution (1629).
Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634) Mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE. Won a number of important battles against Protestant armies.
Edict of Restitution (1629): The Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church.
Swedish Phase Protestants liberated territory lost in previous (Danish) phase. HRE reluctantly annulled the Edict of Restitution. The Swedish army was defeated in 1634; France now feared a resurgence of Catholicism in the HRE.
Gustavus Adolphus (King of Sweden) Led an army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia. Battle of Breitenfeld, 1631: victory that ended Habsburg hopes of reuniting Germany under Catholicism.
French Phase “International Phase” Cardinal Richelieu of France allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE (as had occurred in the earlier Habsburg-Valois Wars).
Cardinal Richelieu (Of France) Allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE. Policies reflected Catholic France’s paramount diplomatic concerns as political, not religious; thus he can be seen as a politique.
Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Ended Catholic Reformation in Germany. Renewal of Peace of Augsburg (added Calvinism as a politically accepted faith). Guaranteed Germany would remain divided politically ,religiously for centuries. Dissolution of Holy Roman Empire confirmed.
English Civil War Puritan Revolution. Since the reign of James I (1603-1625) there had been a struggle between the king and Parliament regarding taxation and civil liberties.
James I During his reign, struggle between the king and Parliament regarding taxation and civil liberties. Believed in “divine right” of kings and absolutism. The monarchy strongly defended the Anglican Church.
Charles I (1625-1649) twice dissolved Parliament. absolute monarch (1629-40). Raised money using Medieval forms of forced taxation. Religious persecution of Puritans became biggest reason for the English Civil War.
“Ship money" all counties now required to pay to outfit ships where before only coastal communities had paid.
“divine right” of kings a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
Cavaliers Group of people that supported the king when the Civil War broke out in 1642
Roundheads (Calvinists) Group of people that opposed the king when the Civil War broke out in 1642
Oliver Cromwell a fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of the Roundheads, eventually led his New Model Army to victory in 1649.
New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell and made up of Roundheads.
Pride’s Purge (1648): Elements of the New Model Army (without Cromwell’s knowledge) removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament leaving a “Rump Parliament” with only 1/5 of its members remaining.
“Rump Parliament” the English Parliament after Colonel Pride purged the Long Parliament on 6 December 1648 of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
Levellers Radical religious revolutionaries; sought social & political reforms—a more egalitarian society
Diggers denied Parliament’s authority and rejected private ownership of land.
Quakers Believed in an “inner light”, a divine spark that existed in each person. Rejected church authority. As pacifists, they were opposed to war. Allowed women to play a role in preaching.
Interregnum (1649-1660) Rule without a king. 1649, Cromwell invaded Ireland to put down an Irish uprising that had favored royalist forces in England. Cromwell conquered Scotland in 1651-52.
The Protectorate (1653-1659) Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector (Dictatorship). New republic failed to govern effectively. Cromwell dissolved “Rump Parliament” (1653). Denied religious freedom to Anglicans, Catholics. Allowed Jews to return to England in 1655.
Charles II The Stuarts under him (r. 1660-1685) were restored to the throne in 1660.
Created by: jayzsmyagent