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Stack #16825

Mechanics of Breathing

QuestionAnswer
Baring pneumothorax, this pressure is always lower than atmospheric pressure(that is, is negative pressure) Intrapleural pressure
Pressure of air outside the body Atmospheric Pressure
As it decreases, air flows into the atmospheric pressure, of the lungs Intrapulmonary Pressure
As it increases over atmospheric pressure, air flows out of the lungs Intrapulmonary Pressure
If this pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure, the lungs collapse Intrapleural Pressure
Rises well over atmospheric pressure during a forceful cough Intrapulmonary Pressure
Also known as the intra-alveolar pressure Intrapulmonary Pressure
The change in lung volume with a given change in transpulmonary pressure Lung compliance
Gas flow changes inversely with this factor Respiratory passageway resistance
Essential for normal respiration Lung elasticity
Leads to RDS when surfactant is absent Alveolar surface tension forces
Diminished by age-related lung fibrosis and increasing rigidity of the thoracic cage Lung compliance
Its loss is the major pathology in emphyema Lung elasticity
Reflects a state of tension at the surface of a liquid Alveolar surface tension forces
Dramatically increased by asthma Respiratory passageway resistance
Greatest in the medium-sized bronchi Respiratory passageway resistance
Name the three accessory muscles that are activated during forced inspiration that raise the rib cage more vigorously scalenes, sternoclemastoids, pectoralis
Provide two examples of muscles that depress the rib cage upon forceful expiration Internal intercostals, latissmus dorsi
Provide two examples of muscles that cause abdominal pressure to rise Obliques, transversus
Three factors that decrease alveolar ventilation rate Shallow breathing, Rapid breathing, Mucus in the resp passageways
Respiratory volume inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing Tidal Volume (TV)
Air in respiratory passages that does not contribute to gas exchange Dead space volume
Total amount of exchangeable air Vital capacity(VC)
Gas volume that allows gas exchange to go on continuously Residual volume(RV)
Amount of air that can still be exhaled(forcibly)after a normal exhalation Expiratory reserve volume(ERV)
Sum of all lung volumes Total lung capacity(TLC)
Pulmonary function tests can be conducted using a_____ Spirometer
This type of test can distinguish between_______&_______ Obstructive pulmonary dz, restricted disease
Obsructive pulmonary diseases reduce the rate of air flow will lower this value FEV-forced expiratory volume
Restrictive diseases reduces the total inflation capacity will lower this value FVC-forced vital capacity
Sudden inspiration, resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are hiccups
A deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the lungs against the glottis; clears the lower resp passageways cough
As just described, but clears the upper respiratory passageways sneeze
Created by: butterflee21