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Stack #16824

Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 main events of respiration? pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases, internal respiration
Name the respiratory zone structures respiratory bronchiloles, alveolar ducts, alveoli, and all microscopic structures.
What is the function of the respiratory zone? Site of gas exchange
Name the conducting zone structures. all other resp passages from nose to bronchioles
List the pathway of air in order as it enters the body to the bronchi. nose, external nares, internal nares, middle meatus, pharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharnyx, larynx, epiglottis, glottis, vocal folds, trachea, carina, primary bronci
List the bones and cartilages contributing to the framework of the nose. nasal bone, septal cartilage, maxillary bone, lateral cartilage, greater alar cartilage, lesser alar cartilages, dense fibrous connective tissue
Air enters the nasal cavities of the resp system through the_____? external nares
The nasal cavity is divided by the midline___? nasal septum
The nasal cavity's major functions are to_____? moisten, warm, clean and filter the incoming air
Mucous membrane-lined cavities called___are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavity. paranasal sinuses
Paranasal sinuses make the skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for____? speech
The ___, is often referred to as the throat; it connects the nasal cavities with the___below. pharynx, larynx
Clusters of lymphatic tissue, that are part of the defensive system of the body. tonsils
What are the 3 functions of the larynx? to provide a patent airway, switching mechanism to route air & food into proper channels, voice production
What cartilages anchor the vocal cords internally? arytenoid cartilages
What type of cartilage forms the epiglottis? elastic
What type of cartilage forms the other 8 laryngeal cartilages? hyaline
Explain the difference between the cartilages of the epiglottis and the remaining eight cartilages. The epiglottis must be flexible to be able to flap over the glottis during swallowing, and the more rigid hyaline cartilages support the walls of the larynx.
What is the common name for the laryngeal prominence? Adams Apple
Smallest respiratory passageways are bronchioles
Separates the oral and nasal cavities palate
Major nerve stimulating the diaphragm phrenic nerve
Food passageway posterior to the trachea esophagus
Closes off the larynx during swallowing epiglottis
Windpipe trachea
Actual site of gas exchange alveoli
Pleural layer covering the thorax walls parietal pleura
Autonomic nervous system nerve serving the thorax vagus nerve
Lumen of the larynx glottis
Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity that increase its surface area conchae
Close the glottis during the Valsalva maneuver Vocal folds
Closes the nasopharynx during swallowing Uvula
The cilia of its mucosa beat upward toward the larynx trachea
What muscles control the length of the true vocal cords? intrinsic laryngeal muscles
The tenser the vocal cords the ______pitch higher
To produce deep tones, the glottis is____ wider
The greater the force of air rushing past the vocal cords, the_____the sound produced. louder
Inflammation of the vocal cords is called_____ laryngitis
What important role is played by the cartilage rings that reinforce the trachea? they prevent the trachea from collapsing during the pressure changes occurring during breathing
Of what importance is the fact that the cartilage rings are incomplete posteriorly? Alllows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when we swallow food or fluids.
What occurs when the trachealis muscle contracts and in what activities might this action be very helpful? it constricts the tracheal lumen, causing air to be expelled with more force- coughing, yelling.
With the exception of the stroma of the lungs, which is___tissue, the lungs are mostly air spaces. elastic connective
The bulk of the alveolar walls are made up of squamous epithelial cells called___cells. Type I
Structurally , the cells are well suited for their____function. gas exchange
The cuboidal cells of the alveoli, called___cells, are much less numerous. Type II
Type 2 cells produce a fluid that coats the air-exposed surface of the alveolus and contains a lipid-based molecule called_____. Surfactant
Surfactant functions to____of the alveolar fluid. Decrease the surface tension
The nutritive blood supply of the lungs is providing by the______arteries. Bronchial
Created by: butterflee21