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ApEuro Religious War

Habsburg-Valois Wars last purely dynastic wars of the 16th century,These wars had been political in nature (and thus not religious) since both France and the Holy Roman Empire were Catholic
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559 Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars
Philip II Like his father, Charles V, fanatically sought to re-impose Catholicism in Europe
Escorial new royal palace (and monastery and mausoleum) was built in the shape of grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Lawrence
Battle of Lepanto 1571,Spain defeated theTurkish navy off the coast of Greece
Dutch Revolt took place in the Netherlands,Philip sought to crush the rise of Calvinism in the Netherlands
William of Orange (1533-1584), led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition
United Provinces of the Netherlands formed in 1581 (Dutch Republic),Received aid from England under Elizabeth I,Major blow to Philip’s goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire
Spanish Netherlands (modern-day Belgium):the 10 southern provinces remained under Spain’s control
Mary Tudor (“Bloody Mary”) Philips wife, had tried to re-impose Catholicism in England,but failed
Elizabeth I reversed Mary’s course via the “Elizabethan Settlement”,Elizabeth refused Philip’s request for marriage,Elizabeth helped the Protestant Netherlands gain independence from Spain
Spanish Armada Spain’s attempt to invade England ended in disaster,they were mostly destroyed by thunderstorms that surrounded the English Channel
French Civil Wars at least 9 wars between 1562-1598,After the death of Henry II in 1559 a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown ensued,
Catherine de Medicis fought hard to maintain Catholic control in France,
St. Bartholomew Day Massacre August, 24, 1572,Catherine de Médicis ordered the massacre of Calvinists in response to the assassination of Henry of Guise
War of the Three Henry’s The massacre initiated the War of the Three Henrys: civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Bourbons
Henry IV became the first Bourbon king,One of the most important kings in French history,His rise to power ended the French Civil Wars and placed France on a gradual course towards absolutism
politique Sought practical political solutions (rather than ideological ones like Philip II): somewhat Machiavellian in nature
Edict of Nantes 1598: Henry IV granted a degree of religious toleration to Huguenots
Thirty Years’ War most important war of 17th century,Failure of the Peace of Augsburg, 1555,The 1555 agreement had given German princes the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the official religion of their states, lasted for 60 years
Bohemian phase Defenestration of Prague (1618): triggered war in Bohemia
Defenestration of Prague (1618)triggered war in Bohemia,The Holy Roman Emperor placed severe restrictions on Protestantism
Danish Phase represented the height of Catholic power during the war
Albrecht von Wallenstein Mercenary general who was paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE
Edict of Restitution The Emperor declared all church territories that had been secularized since 1552 to be automatically restored to Catholic Church
Swedish Phase Protestants liberated territory lost in previous (Danish) phase
Gustavus Adolphus (King of Sweden): led an army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia,
French Phase The “International Phase”
Cardinal Richelieu of France allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE (as had occurred in the earlier Hapsburg-Valois Wars).
Treaty of Westphalia ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany, Renewal of Peace of Augsburg (but added Calvinism as a politically accepted faith)
English Civil War Puritan Revolution
James I Since the reign of James I (1603-1625) there had been a struggle between the king and Parliament regarding taxation and civil liberties
Charles I twice dissolved Parliament,In effect, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch between 1629 and 1640
“divine right” of kings of kings and absolutism
Cavaliers supported the king
Roundheads (Calvinists) opposed the king
Oliver Cromwell a fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of the Roundheads
New Model Army A division between Puritans and Presbyterians (and non-Puritans) developed late in the war
Pride’s Purge Elements of the New Model Army (without Cromwell’s knowledge) removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament
“Rump Parliament” only leavin 1/5 of its members alive
Levellers Radical religious revolutionaries; sought social & political reforms—a more egalitarian society
Diggers denied Parliament’s authority and rejected private ownership of land
Quakers believed in an “inner light”, a divine spark that existed in each person
Interregnum rule without a king
The Protectorate Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector (Dictatorship)
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Created by: Jose_Martinez