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Chapter 4 Questions

Distinguish between anabolism and catabolism. anabolism (requires energy) occurs when small molecules are built up into larger ones; catabolism (releases energy) occurs when large molecules are broken down into smaller ones
Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. dehydration synthesis joins simple sugar molecules to form larger molecules of glycogen, storing energy in the bonds of the larger molecule/// hydrolysis can decompose carbs, lipids, and proteins releasing a water molecule for each bond broken
Describe how an enzyme interacts with its substrate. each enzyme has a particular substrate. a substrate joins with its enzyme to form an enzyme-substrate complex with creates a product and the unchanged enzyme
Define cofactor. small organic molecule that must combine with an enzyme for activity
Distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic phases of cellular respiration. aerobic reactions require oxygen and anaerobic reactions do not require oxygen. aerobic reaction of cellular respiration: glycolysis. anaerobic reaction: Citric acid cycle and electron transport chain
glycolysis glucose molecules are broken down into pyruvic acid
citric acid cycle pyruvic acid molecules enter mitochondria, where CO2 and high energy electrons are released
electron transport chain carrier molecules and enzymes extract energy and store it as ATP, releasing water and heat
Excess glucose in cells may be linked and stored as __________. glycogen
Distinguish between a gene and a genome a gene is a DNA sequence that contains the information for making a particular protein///a genome is the complete set of genetic instructions in a cell, including the genes as well as other sequences
If a DNA strand has the sequence ATGCGATCCGC then the sequence on the complimentary DNA strand is _____________. TACGCTAGGCG
Describe the events of DNA replication. hydrogen bonds break between complementary base pairs, then the strands unwind and separate exposing unpaired bases, new nucleotides pair with exposed bases, enzymes knit together the new backbone, two new molecules result
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of ATTCTCGACTAT, the complementary mRNA has the sequence of _______________. UAAGAGCUGAUA
Distinguish the functions of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. review in book
Distinguish between transcription and translation. transcripton occurs in the nucleus and DNA is transcribed into mRNA///translation occurs in the cytoplasm and is where mRNA is translated from language of nucleic acids to language of amino acids
Describe the function of a ribosome in protein sythesis. allows tRNA and mRNA to bind
List the steps of protein synthesis. review pages 137-143
Discuss two major ways that a mutation occurs. spontaneous or induced
Discuss three ways that the genetic code protects against the persistence of mutation. if a mutation changes the third base the same amino acid is still formed, if a mutation changes the second base the amino acid is similar enough, and a person has two copies of each chromosome
Created by: wmisaacharris