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Func Areas Practice

Functional Areas of Practice

First Earth Day April 22, 1979
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was created in 1927 in order to create the Colorado River Aqueduct. It was built between 1933 and 1941 and is owned and operated by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. It ran a water pipeline to Los Angeles.
Rachel Carson author of Silent Spring, which was published in 1962. In the book, Carson examined the dangers of chemical pesticides, such as DDT, on plants, animals, and humans. This book greatly influenced the way people think about the environment.
Effluent Standards are set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Effluent guidelines reduce the discharge of pollutants that have serious environmental impacts. The EPA has effluent guidelines for more than 50 categories
Point Source Pollution is discharged directly from a specific site, such as a sewage treatment plant or an industrial pipe.
Non-point Source Pollution is contaminated runoff from many sources.
Potable Water is water that is safe to drink.
Aquifer is one or more strata of rock or sediment that is saturated and sufficiently permeable to yield economically significant quantities of water to wells or springs. An aquifer includes any geologic material that is currently used or could be used as a source of water within the target distance limit
Estuary is an area where fresh water meets salt water.
Lagoon is a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.
Marsh is a type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland found along rivers, ponds, lakes, and coasts. It does not accumulate appreciable peat deposits and is dominated by herbaceous vegetation.
Resevoir is a pond, lake, tank, or basin that can be used for the storage and control of water, and can be either natural or man-made.
Surface water includes rivers, lakes, oceans, ocean-like water bodies, and coastal tidal waters.
Swamp is a freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water.
Watershed is a freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water.
Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs, and other similar areas. They are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands can be natural or constructed.
Clean Water Act was passed in 1977, as an amendment to the Federal Water Pollutant Control Act of 1972. This Act requires anyone wanting to discharge pollutants into a body of water to obtain a permit to do so. It also regulates the amount of water that may be discharged and the types of pollutants that may be released.
Point Source Discharge Permit must be obtained in order to discharge pollutants into the water, a Point Source Discharge Permit from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).
Clean Air Act passed in 1970 with major amendments in 1977 and 1990. The federal government sets ambient standards and the states must devise methods that enables these standards to be met. Air cannot be contained in one location, so Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR) were created to measure air quality in airsheds. Like the Clean Water Act, the law requires a permit to release pollutants into the air. The Act monitors six pollutants: Ozone, Particulate Matter, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Lead
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) relates to air quality and requires that a project will not increase emissions above a specified PSD increment.
Ambient Air Quality Standards are the maximum air contaminant concentrations allowed in the ambient air.
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) resulted in Council on Environmental Quality. Requires that env impacts of a project be considered. Environmental Assessment is required to determine if there are significant impacts. Requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS is required for federal projects significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the environmental assessment determines that there is a significant impact then an Environmental Impact Statement is required.
The Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 prohibited the construction of any bridge, dam, dike, or causeway over any navigable waterway in the U.S. without Congressional approval. The Act also required Congressional approval for all wharfs, piers, or jetties, and the excavation or fill of navigable waters.
The Water Pollutant Control Act of 1948 allowed the Surgeon General to prepare a comprehensive program for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries and improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground waters. The Act allowed the Federal Works Administrator to assist government agencies in constructing treatment plants that could help to prevent discharges of inadequately treated sewage and other wastes into interstate waters or tributaries.
The Water Quality Act of 1965 established the Water Pollution Control Administration within the Department of the Interior. This was the first time water quality was treated as an environmental concern rather than a public health concern.
The Clean Water Act of 1966 provided construction grants for wastewater treatment facilities.
The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 later amended in 1990, focused efforts to reduce polluted runoff in 29 coastal states.
The Federal Water Pollutant Control Act of 1972 amended the Water Pollutant Act of 1948. The amendments broadened the government’s authority over water pollution and restructured the authority for water pollution under the Environmental Protection Agency. The Act changed the enforcement from water quality standards to regulating the amount of pollutants being discharged from particular point sources.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 provided protection of animal and plant species that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designate as threatened or endangered. This act was later amended in 1988.
The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 promoted alternative energy sources, energy efficiency, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. It also created a market for non-utility power producers and requires competition in the utility industry.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 created a $1.6 billion Superfund to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites and requires major industries to report annual releases of toxic wastes into the air, water, or ground.
Biomass energy uses organic material which is burned to create energy.
Methane is a naturally occurring byproduct of decaying plant and animal material. Methane gas is burned to produce electricity.
Insulation allows for more efficient heating of a building. Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-value. This indicates the resistance to heat flow. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulation. A minimum R-value of 20 is recommended for residential use.
Reducing a thermostat one degree will result in money savings of between 1-3%, according to
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) resulted in the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality. The Act requires that the environmental impacts of a project be considered.
Trip Generation deals with the number of trips that a particular site is likely to generate. Thus, it is a byproduct of land use and intensity of use, factors which "induce" people to travel. The propensity to make trips is also dependent on the characteristics of the journey, trip purpose, and socioeconomic characteristics of the person making the trip (income, age, auto ownership).
Origin-Destination Survey This survey requires that road blocks be set up along major routes. The imaginary line that denotes the boundary of the study area is known as the cordon line. Motorists within the cordon area can then be sampled and asked questions on where they are coming from (address or point of origin) and where they are going (destination). A more detailed survey with questions on socioeconomic characteristics can also be given to those sampled. That questionnaire is generally mailed back by the respondent.
Cross tabulation models used to estimate trip generation. Allows for estimates based on land use type, purpose, or socioeconomic characteristics. Needless to say, trip generation estimates based on current data becomes less and less valid with age. When local surveys are unavailable due to time or monetary constraints, published rates are used to derive estimates. One must keep in mind that trip generation models, tables, and surveys all have their own sources of error and are good for only providing estimates.
Some typical trip generation rates include: 11 daily trip ends for each 1,000 square feet of general office space, 9.6 daily trip ends per single family residential dwelling, 6.6 daily trip ends per apartment unit,43 daily trip ends per 1,000 square feet of shopping center space, 7 daily trip ends per 1,000 square feet of light industrial development
Trip Distribution examines where people are going. A region or area is often divided into traffic zones. Trip distribution information generally provides information on how many trips are made between each zone and every other zone.
gravity model simple tool that attempts to quantify the rather complex trip generation relationships. It provides trip estimates based directly on the proportional attractiveness of the zone and inversely proportional to the trip length.
Modal Split deals with how people get to where they want to go, and the form of transportation that they use. By having information on the number of people using their cars, various forms of mass transit, bicycles, or walking, we are able to estimate how many vehicles need to get from one place to another.
Base Closure Act 1990. Closed numerous bases at the end of the Cold War.
Energy Policy Act of 2005 Need to be using more biofuels
Food Systems Planning Chain of activities beginning with the production of food and moving on to include processing, distributing, wholesaling, retailing, consumption and disposal of waste.
Steps in the Food Chain A. Food production, B. Distribution and processing, C. Access and consumption, D. Waste disposal
National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act 1977 Development of standards and codes for earthquake resistant construction
Coastal Zone Management Act 1972 limitations on development of barrier islands and resources
Coastal Barrier Resources Act 1982 limitations on development of barrier islands and resources
National Flood Insurance Act 1968 Provided a system of national flood insurance
Disaster Mitigation Act 2000 mandates county level disaster mitigation planning for every county in the country.
AADT (Average Annual Daily Traffic) is the amount of traffic on a roadway in a 24 hour period, averaged over a year;
Seasonal Hour Volume is the peak hour volumes during different seasons
Design Hour Volume (DHV) is the capacity of the roadway to handle traffic
Traffic assignment also known as trip assignment, allows us to use network models to predict the distribution of traffic for each roadway by the hour. It basically gives us the information on the routes that will be used. Peak volumes can then be compared with DHV to see which, if any, roadways are going to experience traffic over their design capacity; i.e., where the congestion is going to be
Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) a measure of vehicular mobility obtained from travel inventories. Is a function of many factors, including topography, population density, travel distances between home and other daily destinations (such as work, shopping, and recreation), and the availability of mass transit. High VMT indicates more vehicles are on the road to meet growing employment, errand, and other travel demands. It can also mean that the trip origins and destinations are getting further apart and travel times are becoming longer.
Street gradients the minimum gradient in most areas is 0.5%. In areas with cold winters the maximum gradient is 5%; it is 8% for areas with mild winters.
Highway Capacity Manual published by the Transportation Research Board, provides concepts, guidelines, and procedures for computing highway capacity and quality of service based on road type.
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944 designated a 65,000-km national system of interstate highways, was passed. These highways were to be selected by the state highway departments. While this act authorized the highway system, it did not provide any funding.
Public Roads Administration (PRA) was responsible for implementing the highway system. In 1947, the PRA designated 60,640 km of interstate highways. In 1952, the Federal-Aid Highway Act authorized $25 million for the construction of interstate highways and another $175 million two years later. However, the major funding came under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, which authorized $25 billion between 1957 and 1969.
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 created the federal mandate for urban transportation planning in the U.S. It was passed at a time when urban areas were beginning to plan Interstate highway routes. The Act required that transportation projects in urbanized areas with population of 50,000 or more be based on an urban transportation planning process. The Act called for a "continuing, comprehensive, and cooperative" (3 C's) planning process.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) focused on providing funding for not just highways but also transit, pedestrian, and bicycle facilities
Other recent transportation acts Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), Transportation Equity Act 3 (TEA3), Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA), Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century
Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) Work on regional transportation planning issues. Metropolitan Planning Organizations are created to meet federal requirements for urban transportation planning. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 required that urbanized areas with populations of 50,000 or more develop comprehensive urban transportation plans in order to receive federal financial assistance for road construction projects.
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) 3-5 year prioritized program of transportation projects. The TIP represents the transportation improvement priorities of the region and is required by federal law, the most recent of which is the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, or TEA-21. The list is multi-modal; in addition to the more traditional highway and public transit projects, it includes bicycle, pedestrian, and freight related projects.
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) a general term used to describe strategies for the efficient use of transportation. TDM includes a wide variety of strategies designed to reduce the strain on a transportation system. Examples of TDM strategies include: Car Sharing, Flextime, Guaranteed Ride Home, Public Transit, Park-and-Ride, HOV Lanes, Telecommuting, Commute Trip Reduction Transit Oriented Development
Car Sharing allows individuals to purchase a membership to a car service. Cars are located at fixed locations throughout a city and a member calls to schedule a time to use one. This allows individuals to pay only as they use the vehicle.
Commute trip reduction (CTR) is one of the tools of a total transportation demand management plan. CTR programs provide commuters with resources and incentives to reduce their vehicle trips, particularly during peak commute hours.
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) refers to residential and commercial areas designed to maximize access by different modes of transportation, including automobiles, transit, bicycles, and pedestrians. These developments are specifically designed to encourage the use of public transportation. A TOD neighborhood has a center with a rail or bus station, surrounded by medium to high-density development, and progressively lower-density spreading outwards.
Chicane a series of staggered curb extensions on alternating sides of the roadway. Motorists reduce their speed by having to maneuver along the roadway.
Choker a curb extension in the middle of a block. They narrow the street width to restrict the speed of traffic in each direction.
Realigned intersections change the alignment of roadways near an intersection. This causes traffic to slow prior to entering the intersection. The approach to the intersection is not straight. It requires the driver to move into a curve before approaching the intersection.
Speed humps are raised areas placed across a road and are 3 to 4 inches tall. They reduce traffic speed by causing uncomfortable driving conditions if the driver goes too fast.
Speed table larger than a speed hump. It has a flat-top and may have brick or another textured material on the flat surface. A speed table is long enough for the entire vehicle to rest on the flat section of the table.
Traffic circles raised landscape islands located at the center of an intersection and can vary in size. They reduce traffic speed by requiring drivers to slow to a pace that allows maneuvering around the circle.
standard parking stall 9 feet by 18 feet.
Peak Parking Demand the hour of the day when most parking is needed for a particular development.
Public Health Movement The second half of the 1800's
The first model tenement was built in New York City 1855
The first dumbbell tenement was built 1879
Tenement House Act of 1867 Passed in New York City, this ordinance required new tenement buildings to provide a narrow air shaft between adjacent structures, windows that open into the shaft, two toilets on each floor, and a one square yard window in each room. This represented the first major housing code in the United States
How the Other Half Lives Jacob Riis, published in 1890. The result of this book was housing reform in New York City
Tenement House Law of 1901 Passed by NY State in 1901 outlawed dumbbell tenements. The new housing code was vigorously enforced by the City. The City required inspection and permits for construction and alterations. It also required wide light and air areas between buildings and toilets and running water in each apartment unit.
Neighborhood Unit Concept Defined by Clarence Perry in 1920 as part of the New York Regional Plan. The Neighborhood Unit Concept defines a neighborhood based on a five minute walking radius. At the center is a school. Each neighborhood is approximately 160 acres.
Public Works Administration (PWA) Created in 1934 to combat the Great Depression. The PWA provided 85 percent of the cost of public housing projects. This represented the first federally supported public housing program.
National Housing Act Passed by Congress in 1934. It established the Federal Housing Administration with the purpose of insuring home mortgages.
Resettlement Administration In 1935, used New Deal funds to develop new towns. Greendale, WI, Greenhills, OH, and Greenbelt, MD, are all in existence today. In addition, 99 other communities were planned.
U.S. Housing Act 1937. Provided $500 million in home loans for the development of low-cost housing. This Act tied slum clearance to public housing.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act 1944. Commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
Housing Act of 1949 was the first comprehensive housing legislation passed. The Act called for the construction of 800,000 new housing units and emphasized slum clearance.
Housing Act of 1954 called for slum prevention and urban renewal. Additionally, the Act provided funding for planning for cities under 25,000 population. The 701 funds were later expanded to allow for statewide, interstate, and regional planning.
Housing Act of 1959 made federal matching funds available for comprehensive planning at the metropolitan, regional, state, and interstate levels.
Housing Act of 1961 provided interest subsidies to nonprofit organizations, limited-dividend corporations, cooperatives, and public agencies for the construction of public housing projects for low and moderate income families to rent.
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Was formed in 1965 through the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965. The act also put into place rent subsidies for the poor, home loans at reduced interest rates, and subsidies for public housing projects.
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act 1966. Was the launch of the model cities program. The Act provided financial incentives for coordinated metro area planning for open spaces, water supply, sewage disposal, and mass transit. It also established a loan guarantee program to encourage the development of "new communities."
Civil Rights Act of 1968 made racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing illegal.
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 provided for the construction of six million subsidized housing units. The Act also authorized monthly subsidies for private houses for low income families.
Miami Valley Regional Planning Commission 1970. In Ohio adopted a housing plan that called for low and moderate income housing to be allocated on a fair share basis.
Pruitt-Igoe Project Demolished in St. Louis in 1972. The demolition of this public housing project marked a shift away from high-rise concentrated public housing.
Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG) Was created in 1974 under the Housing and Community Development Act. This grant program provides great flexibility for communities to use these federal funds for the improvement of blighted areas. The CDBG program consolidated six categorical urban programs into one. Additionally, the Act created the Section 8 program that provides rent subsidies for low-income housing.
National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act of 1974 Regulated manufactured housing units and prohibited municipalities from regulating manufactured homes through the building code. The homes could be regulated in terms of location, size, and appearance. This act applied to all manufactured homes built in 1976 or later.
Urban Development Action Grant Program (UDAG) was authorized under the 1977 amendments to the 1974 Housing and Community Development Act. The UDAG program promoted public-private partnerships for redevelopment of urban areas. It also required intergovernmental cooperation in the placement of projects. Finally, it cut funding for the Section 701 comprehensive planning program.
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 created the HOME program, which provides funds for housing rehabilitation.
HOPE VI Passed by Congress in 1992. grant program provided funds for the redevelopment of severely distressed public housing. It also allowed for the demolition of public housing as well as the construction of new public housing. The result has been a deconcentration of public housing.
Consolidated Plan In 1995, the HUD required local communities to prepare a Consolidated Plan in order to receive funding from a number of HUD programs. The Consolidated Plan is a collaborative process whereby a community establishes a unified vision for community development actions.
Consolidated Plan pt 2 It is a means to analyze the entire community and explore the linkages to the larger region. It builds on local assets and coordinates a response to the needs of the community. It integrates economic, physical, and human development in a comprehensive and coordinated fashion so that individuals, families, neighborhoods, and communities can work together and thrive.
Consolidated Plan pt 3 The consolidated planning process replaces the planning and application requirements for the following: Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME) Emergency Shelter Grant (ESG) Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) The Consolidated Plan is both a process and a document.
Plat A plat is a map of a tract or parcel of land.
Replat A replat allows for lots to be subdivided further or added back together.
Amending plat An amending plat corrects errors or adds additional information to a plat.
Vacating plat A vacating plat allows for a plat to be terminated prior to the selling of any lots.
Preliminary plat A preliminary plat is a to-scale mechanical drawing with precise topography and prescribed intervals showing the calculated location of all lots, streets, drainage patterns, facilities, and proposed dedications.
Final plat A final plat is the approved preliminary plat with all bearing, monuments, curves, and notations, together with all dedications, easement, and approvals.
The purposes behind subdivision regulations are: To regulate subdivision development and implement planning policies; To implement plans for orderly growth and development within the city’s boundaries and ETJ; ensure adequate provision for streets, alleys, parks, and other facilities indispensable to the community; protect future purchasers from inadequate police and fire protection; ensure sanitary conditions and other governmental services; require compliance with certain standards as conditions and other governmental services; officially register land.
To plat a property, the following steps must be taken: Applicant submits a preliminary plat; Preliminary plat is reviewed by staff for compliance with subdivision regulations; Plat is then reviewed by the planning commission; Once the preliminary plat is approved by the planning commission, the property owner prepares the final plat; Final plat then repeats the process above until it is approved by the planning commission.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) The ETJ is a distance outside of the city limits where the subdivision regulations apply. The distance is specified under state law.
performance bonds A performance bond is an agreement between the property owner and the community to ensure that the final plat is built as shown on the drawings within a certain time period. If the developer fails to meet the requirements, the government may use the bond to cover the cost of constructing the improvements. The bond is released once the improvements are in place and have been inspected by the local government.
Impact fees typically charged for off-site infrastructure that is needed to provide service to a development, such as a water or sewer main.
Dedications gifts of land for public purposes, such as roads, parks, and utilities.
subdivision bonuses A subdivision bonus is the extension of development benefits beyond those normally offered in exchange for enhancements such as affordable housing, cluster housing, and open space preservation. The developer may receive assistance with infrastructure, impact fees may be waived, or the ability to construct at a higher density may be granted.
Euclidean Zoning named after the City of Euclid, Ohio. It places the most protective restrictions on residential land uses, less on commercial uses, and virtually none on industrial uses. This concept places the most restrictive zoning category, single-family residential, at the top of the pyramid.
Cumulative Zoning Less protective than Euclidean. In cumulative zoning, each successive zoning district allows all the uses from the previous zones: Single-Family District allows single-family homes. Multi-Family District allows apartments and all uses allowed in the Single-Family District. Commercial District allows retail and commercial uses and all uses allowed in the Multi-family District. Industrial District allows industrial uses and all uses allowed in the Commercial District
Modified Cumulative Zoning districts are typically cumulative by type of land use. For example, a multi-family district would allow both single-family homes and multi-family housing. However, the industrial district would not allow residential uses.
use variance allows a property to have a use not explicitly allowed under the zoning district regulations. For example, a business owner would like to operate an ice cream shop in an area that is not zoned for restaurant uses
area variance allows a property to be excluded from the physical site requirements under the zoning ordinance. For example, an area variance would allow a property owner to build his or her house with only a 20 foot front setback instead of the required 25 foot setback.
Variance requirements Unique to the surrounding property; Must have a physical or economic hardship; The variance will not result in a reduction in property values; The property owner did not cause the need for the variance; The variance is not contrary to the spirit of the zoning ordinance.
Hubbert Peak theory This theory postulates that for any given location, the rate of petroleum production follows a bell curve.
Palustrine A non-tidal wetland marsh.
Peak oil a situation where the petroleum output is at its maximum with a continued increase in demand.
Neotraditional Development Mixed Use, Multimodal, Contains Public Spaces.
Littoral part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
lacustrine means "of a lake" or "relating to a lake".
Effluent Standards are set restrictions on the discharge of pollutants into the environment. Effluent guidelines reduce the discharge of pollutants that have serious environmental impacts. The EPA has effluent guidelines for more than 50 categories.
What does ZIP Code stand for? Zone Improvement Plan Code
Created by: gskbrew
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