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Plan Making Implemen

Plan Making and Implementation

Planned Unit Developments Encourages innovative approaches to development. In the form of floating zoning or CUP. Allows negotiation of the zoning requirements.
Performance Zoning Specifies the intensity of land use that is acceptable. First in 1973 Bucks County, PA.
Deed Restrictions Restricts how a property may be used. Must serve a substantial purpose and not violate a constitutional right. Popular in upscale neighborhoods.
Affirmative easement An obligation of both parties to take positive steps to perform some act to maintain a reciprocal relationship Easement of access.
Performance Bond Ensures that final plat is built as approved within specified time.
Dedication a gift of land to be used for a public purpose
Exaction Demand by government that the developer dedicate land or money for public use to hold the project harmless from public obligation. e.g., park fees, library fees.
Euclidean Zoning Named after Euclid, Ohio. It places the most protective restrictions on residential land uses, less on commercial uses, and virtually none on industrial uses. This concept places the most restrictive zoning category, single family residential, at the top of the pyramid.
Cumulative Zoning Most restrictive land use in one district up to the least restrictive land use. Rural -> Commercial -> Industrial
Modified Cumulative Zoning Same as cumulative zoning but only cumulative by land use
Types of form based zoning Form Based Districts
Form Based Codes
Smart Code
Form Base Less focused on use and more focused on actual layout and design of the particular land uses.
Floor Area Ratio (FAR) Floor area ratio (FAR) is the ratio of the gross floor area of a building to its ground area.
Scales A small-scale map displays a large land area with very little detail. A large-scale map shows a limited land area in great detail.
Map projections The three basic types of map projection are conic, cylindrical, and planar.
Population is the total number of some entity.
Sample is a subset of the population
Descriptive Statistics describe the characteristics of a population.
Inferential Statistics determine characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population. We infer things about the population based on what is observed in the sample.
Mean is the average of a distribution. The mean of [2, 3, 4, 5] is 3.5
Median is the middle number of a ranked distribution. The median of [2, 3, 4, 6, 7] is 4.
Mode is the most frequent number in a distribution. The modes of [1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7] are 3 and 7. Using a mean (27.5) to describe the age of members in a group [2, 8, 15, and 85] would be an inaccurate representation. A median (15) is more accurate.
Nominal data is classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race, social security number, and sex are examples of nominal data. Mode is the only measure of central tendency that can be used for nominal data.
Ordinal data has values that are ranked so that inferences can be made regarding the magnitude. Has no fixed interval between values. A letter grade on a test ia example of ordinal data. Mode and median are the only measures of central tendency that can be used.
Interval data is data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude. For temperature, 30 degrees is not twice as cold as 60 degrees. Mean is the best measure of interval data. Where the data is skewed median can be used.
Ratio data has an ordered relationship and equal intervals. Distance is an example of ratio data because 3.2 miles is twice as long as 1.6 miles. Any form of central tendency can be used for this type of data.
normal distribution is one that is symmetrical around the mean. This is a bell curve.
Measures of Dispersion: Range is the simplest measure of dispersion. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Measures of Dispersion: Variance is the average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a distribution.Variance is a descriptor of a probability distribution, how far the numbers lie from the mean.
Measures of Dispersion: Standard Deviation is the square root of the variance.
Measures of Dispersion: Standard Error is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution. Standard errors indicate the degree of sampling fluctuation. The larger the sample size the smaller the standard error.
Measures of Dispersion: Confidence Interval gives an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter. Frequently see confidence intervals provided on the polls.
Measures of Dispersion: Chi Square is a non-parametric test statistic that provides a measure of the amount of difference between two frequency distributions. Used to test the goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one.
Quantitative Analysis Deals with numbers. Data can be measured. Quantitative -> Quantity
Qualitative Analysis Visual survey, observation. Deals with descriptions. Qualitative -> Quantity.
Representative sample need more heterogeneous community. need less for homogeneous community.
survey a research method that allows one to collect data on a topic that cannot be directly observed, such as opinions on downtown retailing opportunities.
cross-sectional survey cross-sectional survey gathers information about a population at a single point in time. For example, planners might conduct a survey on how parents feel about the quality of recreation facilities as of today.
longitudinal surveys As an alternative, planners may conduct longitudinal surveys over a period of time.
Written surveys can be mailed, printed in a newspaper, or administered in a group setting. low-cost survey method. mail surveys have a low response rate, averaging around 20 percent. A written survey also requires the participant to be able to read and write. For this reason, it may be inappropriate when targeting seniors, those that do not speak English, and the illiterate.
Group-administered surveys appropriate when there is a specific population that a planner is trying to target.allows a high and quick response rate
Drop-off survey allows the survey to be dropped off at someone’s residence or business.
Oral surveys an be administered on the phone or in person.
Phone surveys useful when you need yes/no answers. Expensive. response rates vary. Can be biased due to interaction with interviewer.
Online surveys inexpensive method of surveying that can generate quick responses. Not good for poor or elderly.
Goal Goals direct the public toward their future. Goals are also the basis of plan making. A goal is a general statement that may not be realized, but is something towards which to strive. An example would be a healthy environment.
Objective An objective is a more specific and attainable statement. An example would be to increase the riparian buffer along the rivers and streams.
Strategic Planning used to assist an organization in guiding its future. Strategic planning sets goals, objectives, and policies for reaching the set objectives.
Strategic Planning Strategic planning is short term in focus and is specific in accomplishing certain objectives.
Strategic Planning Strategic planning is helpful in looking at the needed organizational changes or a particular issue, but it cannot be used to effectively plan a city as a whole.
Plan making 1. Goals and visions; 2. Analysis of current problems; and 3. Creation of alternatives.
Linear Method The linear method uses the rate of growth (or decline) in population over a period of time to estimate the current or future population. For example, if the population of Plannersville has grown an average of 2% per year over the last 20 years, this same rate of growth would be applied to the future.
Symptomatic Method The symptomatic method uses available data to estimate the current population. For instance, the average household size is 2.5 according to the U.S. Census. If 100 new single-family building permits are issued this year, approximately 250 new people will be added to the community.
Step-Down Ratio Method The step-down ratio method is a relatively simple way to estimate or project population. This method uses the ratio of the population in a city and a county at a known point in time, such as the decennial Census. This ratio is used to project the current or future population. For example, the population of Plannersville is 20% of the county population in 2000. If we know that the county population is 20,000 in 2005, we can then estimate the population of Plannersville as 4,000 (20%).
Cohort Survival Method The cohort survival method uses the current population plus natural increase and net migration to calculate a future population. The population is calculated for men and women in specific age groups. The results of this analysis can be presented in both numerical and graphic form. A graphic presentation with male cohorts on one side and female cohorts on the other will look like a pyramid with many people on the bottom ("birth cohort"). This is called a population pyramid.
Economic base analysis looks at basic and non-basic economic activities. Basic activities are those that can be exported, non-basic activities are those that are locally oriented. Exporting industries make up the economic base of a region. To identify economic base industries, a location quotient is calculated for each industry. The location quotient is the ratio of an industry’s share of local employment divided by its share of the nation. A location quotient less than one indicates an importing economy, a quotient greater than
Economic base analysis looks at basic and non-basic economic activities. Basic activities are those that can be exported, non-basic activities are those that are locally oriented. Exporting industries make up the economic base of a region. To identify economic base industries, a location quotient is calculated for each industry. The location quotient is the ratio of an industry’s share of local employment divided by its share of the nation. A location quotient less than one is an importing economy, greater than one is an exportin
Shift-share analysis analyzes a local economy in comparison with a larger economy. This analysis looks at the differential shift, proportional shift, and economic growth. uses employment information by sector for two points in time. For example, one may wish to compare employment by industry between 1990 and 2000. The total employment change in an industry between 1990 and 2000 is equal to the economic growth plus the differential shift plus the proportional shift.
Input-output analysis is a quantitative method that links suppliers and purchasers to determine the economic output of a region. Input-output analysis is similar to economic base analysis in that it uses an economy’s structure to determine the economy in the future. Requires very large quantity of data, making it costly. One should be familiar with the components of the analysis.quantitative economic technique that represents the interdependencies between different branches of a national economy or different regional economies
2010 Decennial Census The 2010 Decennial Census includes a variety of changes from the previous years. One of the largest changes is the discontinuation of the long form. With the long form eliminated, households only received the short form with 10 questions. To avoid undercounting, the Census Bureau enlisted thousands of groups such as churches, charities, and other organizations to promote the importance of participating in the count.
2000 Census includes changes from earlier years. Was mailed using the 1990 Census address information, U.S. Postal Service files, and, in metropolitan statistical areas, the local update of Census addresses. 17% received the long form, 83% received the short form. The short form was shortest since 1820. Addressed only 7 subjects: name, age, gender, race, Hispanic ethnicity, relationships, and whether the home was rented or owned by the householder. First time allowed to select more than one race that they identify as.
Rate of Response In 1990 and 2000, 65% of U.S. households responded to the initial Census by mail. In 2010, 74% of U.S. households responded by mail. This was then followed up with phone calls and in-person Census workers.
Urbanized Area An urbanized area is an urban nucleus of 50,000 or more. May or may not contain any individual cities of 50,000 or more. In general, they must have a core with a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile and may contain adjoining territory with at least 500 persons per sq mile. Urbanized areas have been delineated using the same basic threshold since 1950, but procedures for delineating the urban fringe are more liberal today. In 2000, 68% of Americans lived in 452 urbanized areas.
Urban Cluster Urban clusters have at least 2,500 but less than 50,000 persons and a population density of 1,000 persons per sq mile. This delineation of built-up territory around small towns and cities is new for the 2000 Census. In 2000, 11% of the U.S. population lived in 3,158 urban clusters.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or an urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants), and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000.
Primary MSA (PMSA) is an area that meets the requirements for an MSA and has a population of one million or more and separate component areas that can be identified within the entire area.
Consolidated MSA (CMSA) is made up of several PMSA's. An example is the Dallas-Fort Worth Consolidated Metropolitan Area. Dallas and Fort Worth are each primary metropolitan statistical areas.
Megalopolis In 1961, Jean Gottman published Megalopolis, about the 300-mile-long urban area between Boston and Washington D.C. The Oxford Dictionary of Geography defines the term as "any many-centered, multi-city, urban area of more than 10 million inhabitants, generally dominated by low-density settlement and complex networks of economic specialization." The term megacity refers specifically to the megalopolis areas with more than 10 million people.
Census Tract typically has a population between 2,000 and 8,000 people. It is the smallest area where all information is released.
Census Block is the smallest level at which the Census data is collected. There are typically 400 housing units per block.
Census Block Group is a group of Census Blocks.
Minor Civil Division (MCD) is a unit only used in 29 states and usually corresponds to a municipality
Census County Divisions are used in the 21 states that do not have MCD's.
Tribal Designated Statistical Area is a unit drawn by tribes that do not have a recognized land area.
Threshold Population is a term that is under a number of government programs to determine program eligibility. For example, the Phase II Stormwater requirements automatically apply if a city meets the minimum threshold population. Another example is the Threshold Population to qualify to receive Community Development Block Grant Funds.
Trends There are a number of trends in the demographic makeup of the U.S. The nation has grown from 76 million people in 1900 to 308 million people in 2010. More than 27 million people were added during the 2000s. To learn more about these trends, view the 2010 Census Briefs and Reports from the U.S. Census Bureau.
average household size went down from 3.1 in 1970 to 2.59 in 2010
American Community Survey (ACS) This survey replaced the long form in the Census, takes a sample of the population and projects the findings to the population as a whole. The ACS began 2005. The survey reaches 2.5% of the nation's population each year (approximately 3 million households). The survey rotates annually so that no household receives the survey more than once every five years.
Baby Boomers People born in the United States between 1946 and 1964 are known as Baby Boomers. The name "baby boomers" came about because there was an exceptionally high birth rate during the period. As this large group ages, issues of long-term care, accessibility, and social security have become more prevalent in public policy.
Generation X These people were born between 1965 and 1976, which was a period of low birth rates.
Generation Y (aka Echo Boom) These are the children of the baby boomers. These people were born between approximately 1977 and 2000. The exact years of this generation vary depending on the source. These are generally children born in the 1980s and 1990s.
Generation Z These are the children born after 2000. The exact years of this generation vary depending on the source.
Gompertz curve (growth) rapid growth that levels off
Exponential growth rapid growth, curved up
Linear growth steady growth, straight line
10 fastest growing metropolitan areas between 2000 and 2010 1. Palm Coast, Florida 2. St. George, Utah 3. Las Vegas-Paradise, Nevada 4. Raleigh-Cary, North Carolina 5. Cape Coral-Fort Myers, Florida 6. Provo-Orem, Utah 7. Greeley, Colorado 8. Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, Texas 9. Myrtle Beach-North Myrtle Beach-Conway, South Carolina 10. Bend, Oregon
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is the field of computerized mapping. GIS has a wide array of applications, from the mapping of a regional sewer systems to determining the best location for an ice cream shop in a neighborhood.
TIGER is the acronym for Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map, which is used for Census data. A TIGER map includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks. TIGER maps are used by the U.S. Census Bureau and can be downloaded into a GIS system, where they are often used as base layers upon which local information is added.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) have improved the spatial accuracy of planning information. GPS allows the incorporation of the location of features and facilities into databases. This is used frequently in smartphone and associated apps to show your location or provide directions. It is also used by transportation departments to alert drivers to traffic delays.
Digital Aerial Photography is frequently used by planners. Digital aerial photography has allowed for increased accuracy to the 0.5 foot resolution. These photographs can be incorporated into GIS.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) show digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it. DEMs can be used for stormwater management, flood control, land use decisions, and other purposes.
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a new technology using a laser, instead of radio waves, that is mounted in an airplane to provide detailed topographic information. It can provide a dense pattern of data points to create one foot contours for DEMs for use in watershed mapping and hydrologic modeling for flood control. It can also be used to sense the environment for code violations, such as signs that were not built to comply with code.
UrbanSim is a simulation software program that models planning and urban development. This free software program is designed to be used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs).
CommunityViz is a software program that allows agencies to create 3D images. This allows citizens to visualize the potential for development and redevelopment.
Fiscal Impact Analysis also known as cost-revenue analysis, is used to estimate the costs and revenues of a proposed development on a local government. For example, if a developer plans to build a regional shopping mall, what will be the cost to extend and maintain infrastructure, provide police service, and transit access?
Average Per Capita Method simplest but least reliable. Divides the total local budget by the existing population to determine the average per-capita cost for the jurisdiction. The result is multiplied by the expected new population associated with new development. This method can be adjusted to determine jobs. Costs and revenues are divided by the population. The major problem with this method is that it assumes the cost of service to new development is same as the cost to service existing community. May not be true.
Adjusted Per Capita Method The Adjusted Per Capita Method uses the figure calculated above and adjusts this based on expectations about the new development. This relies on subjective judgment.
Disaggregated Per Capita Method The Disaggregated Method estimates the costs and revenues based on major land uses; for example, the cost of servicing a shopping center versus an apartment complex.
Dynamic Method The Dynamic Method applies statistical analysis to time-series data from a jurisdiction. This method determines, for example, how much sales tax revenue is generated per capita from a grocery store and applies this to new development. This method requires more data and time to conduct than other methods.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) resulted in the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality. The Act requires that the environmental impacts of a project be considered.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) EIS are for federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the environmental assessment determines that there is a significant impact, then an environmental impact statement is required.
An Environmental Impact Statement typically has four sections: 1. Introduction includes a statement of the Purpose and Need of the Proposed Action; 2. Description of the Affected Environment; 3. Range of Alternatives to the proposed action. Alternatives are considered the "heart" of the EIS; 4. Analysis of the environmental impacts of each of the possible alternatives
An Environmental Impact Statement must address each of the following five topics: 1. Probable impact of the proposed action; 2. Any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; 3. Alternatives to the proposed action; 4. Relationship between local short-term uses of the environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity of the land; 5. Any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that would be involved in the proposed action.
budget the allocation and expenditure of funds to provide service to the public. A budget serves to set spending priorities
operating budget includes everyday expenditures of an organization, such as supplies, personnel, and maintenance of office space.
capital budget includes long-term purchases, such as a new building, recreation center, water main, or major equipment. A capital budget is a one-year budget for capital expenditures
Line-item Budgeting Most common. Each item in the budget is evaluated. No performance or priorities are stated.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems (PPBS) 1960s Defense Department. Organizes spending by program rather than functional objects. It extended programs far enough into the future to determine spending implications. All programs are subjected to explicit quantitative analysis. Emphasizes planning not budgeting.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) ZBB emphasizes planning and fosters understanding within all units of an organization. The advantage of this method is that it requires a department to consider every aspect of its operation and concentrate on why it does things the way it does. This is also the disadvantage, because it is time consuming to justify every activity.
Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) Efficiency and effectiveness of programs to be re-evaluated on a regular basis; Agencies to prepare “decision packages” for each program that look at the impact on mission of “low”, “medium”, and “high” funding; Decision packages of all programs ranked by executive; facilitates budget cuts by City Council.
Performance-based budget Performance-based budgeting is focused on linking funding to performance measures. Example, funding could be tied to the amount of time it takes to process plat applications or building permits. he advantage of this method is that it helps departments develop and evaluate performance standards. The disadvantage is that it is time-consuming to prepare and requires that goals and objectives be stated in measurable terms
Pay-As-You-Go uses current funds to pay for capital improvement projects;
Reserve Funds are ones that have been saved for the purchase of future capital improvements;
General Obligation Bonds are voter-approved bonds for capital improvements. GO Bonds use the tax revenue of the government to pay back the debt;
Revenue Bonds use a fixed source of revenue to pay back the debt. For example, revenue bonds could be issued to pay for a new water main. The debt would be paid back through the water use fees. Revenue bonds are commonly used to finance utility improvements and special facilities, such as baseball stadiums.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) allows a designated area to have tax revenue increases used for capital improvements in that area.
Special Assessments allows a particular group of people to assess the cost of a public improvement. For example, in Columbus, Ohio, the City has a plan to have every street lit by 2020. Property owners are offered the option of having regular street lights for free or ornamental street lights at their expense. In the latter case, all of the property owners on the street are assessed a fee to pay for the ornamental street lights.
Lease-purchase allows a government to “rent-to-own.” The benefit is that the government does not have to borrow money to finance the acquisition of a major capital improvements.
Grants allow for all or a portion of the cost of a public facility to be paid for by someone other than the local government. Grants are available from all levels of government, private sector, and foundations. Typically, grants require a match from the local government.
Progressive tax – The tax rate increases as income rises. For example, the federal income tax system taxes those with high incomes a higher tax rate than those with low incomes;
Proportional tax – The tax rate is the same regardless of income. For example, a property tax rate is the same regardless of the price of your home. A person who owns a $50,000 home pays the same proportion as a person who owns a $250,000 home;
Regressive tax – The tax rate decreases as income rises. Effects the poor more than the rich. e.g., sales tax
Tax Fairness – A tax should reflect the ability to pay of those who bear its burden. Those who are poor, for instance, should not have to pay a lot in taxes;
Tax Certainty – A tax should be fairly applied (i.e., I know that every time I go to purchase a gallon of milk that I will be taxed the same rate);
Tax Convenience – A tax should be convenient to pay. For example, vehicle registration taxes are mailed to vehicle owners' homes;
Tax Efficiency – A tax should allow collection and enforcement to be a straightforward process;
Tax Productivity – A tax should provide a stable source of revenue;
Tax Neutrality – A tax should not change the way a government would normally use its resources.
Management by Objectives MBO 1954 Peter Drucker. a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are.
Capital Improvements Program (CIP)
Capital Improvement Public facility that constitutes a major expenditure and a long life involving nonrecurring expenditures. e.g., water main, park construction, etc.
Bond Rating System AAA to C. Lower risk to higher risk. Tied to interest rate.
Certificates of Obligation higher interest rate than bond, does not need voter approval
Cost-benefit analysis estimates the total monetary value of the benefits and costs to the community of a project(s) to determine whether they should be undertaken. Typically, this is used for public projects such as highways and other public facilities.
Jules Dupuit Cost-benefit analysis was originated by the French engineer in 1848. In the United States, cost-benefit analysis became common as a result of the Federal Navigation Act of 1936. This act required that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers undertake waterway system projects when the total benefits exceed the costs of the project.
Cost-effectiveness analysis a method for selecting among competing projects when resources are limited, was developed by the military. For example, if a community has $50,000 to spend on park improvements then several different projects can be prepared, such as adding playground equipment or purchasing a new lawn mower. The cost-effectiveness ratio is CE Ratio = (cost new strategy - cost current practice)/(effect new strategy – effect current practice).
Goals Achievement Matrix (GAM) is a comprehensive way to evaluate a project. The GAM is a chart that shows the anticipated attainment of a project’s goals and the assignment of accomplishing a goal to a group.
Gantt Chart developed in 1917 by Charles Gantt. This chart focuses on the sequence of tasks necessary for project completion. Each task is represented as a single horizontal bar on an X-Y chart. The X-axis is the time scale over which the project will endure. The length of each task bar corresponds to the duration of each task. The relationship usually shows dependency, where one task cannot begin until another is completed.
Linear programming is a project management method that attempts to find the optimum design solution for a project. This system takes a set of decision variables within constraints and comes up with an optimum design solution.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a scheduling method that graphically illustrates the interrelationships of project tasks. PERT is a good choice when precise time estimates are not available for project tasks. The U.S. Navy developed this method in the 1950s and it is now used widely in the defense industry.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) • Identify the specific activities and milestones;• Determine the proper sequence of the activities;• Construct a network diagram;• Construct a network diagram;• Determine the critical path;• Update the PERT chart as the project progresses.
Critical Path Method (CPM) is a tool to analyze a project. The analysis results in a “critical path” through the project tasks. Each project task has a known amount of time to complete and cannot be completed before the previous one is completed. The longest pathway is the critical pathway.
Four types of Government Weak Mayor-Council. Strong Mayor-Council. Commission Plan. Council-Manager.
System survey systems survey will survey every Xth person
Smallest timeframe for Cohort Survival Method? 5 years
Cost Effective Analysis compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of two or more courses of action
National marriage rates have declined from 72% in 1960 to 51% in 2010.
The analysis of the relationship between two variables Regression Analysis
Proportional Valuation Method A fiscal analysis that estimates the average costs of the proposed office development.
Cross Sectional Survey gathers information about a population at a single point in time. For example, planners might conduct a survey on how parents feel about the quality of recreation facilities as of today.
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