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Stack #16775

Major function of respiratory system to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
Name four processes collectively called respiraton Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of resp gases, internal respiration
Define pulmonary respiration movement of air into and out of the lungs
define external respiration movement of oxygen from lungs to blood, and carbon dioxide from blood to lungs
Transport of respiratory gases transport of oxygen from lungs to the tissues, and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
Internal Respiration movement of oxygen from blood to the tissues, and of carbon dioxide from tissues to the blood
Organs included in th respiratory system nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
Name the 2 zones of respiraion The respiratory zone, the actual site of gas exchange, composed of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli, and all microscopic structures. The conducting zone: all other passages from nose to bronchioles
Function of conducting zone warms, moistens, filters incoming air
Nose produces mucus, filters, warms, and moistens incoming air: resonance chamber for speech
inflammation of vocal cords, causes the vocal folds to swell, interfering with their vibration laryngitis
Valsalva's maneuver during abdominal straining assoc with defecation, the glottis closes to prevent exhalation and the muscles contract, causing intra-abdominal pressure to rise, helps empty rectum and stablizes body
Trachea (windpipe) descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum, tracheal wall consist of several layers
Mucosa goblet cell-containing pseudostratified epithelium, cilia propel debris, bacteria toward the pharynx, rests on thick lamina propria
Submucosa connective tissue layer deep to mucosa, contains seromucous glands, outermost layer is adventitia
Adventitia connective tissue layer reinforced internaly by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
Trachealis muscle open posterior parts of cartilage rings, which abut the esophagus are connected by smooth muscle fibers
Carina spar of cartilage projects posteriorly from its inner face, point where trachea brances into the 2 primary bronchi
Heimlich Maneuver procedure in which air in the victim's lungs is used to expel and obstructing piece of food or FB
Primary Bronchi formed by the division of the trachea at level T7
Secondary(lobar) bronchi subdivision of primary bronchus- 3 on the right and 2 on the left each supplying one lung lobe
Tertiary (segmental) bronchi third order branching which divide into smaller and smaller bronchi, etc.
Bronchioles passages smaller than 1mm in diameter, the tiniest of these terminal branches, are less than 0.5mm in diameter
Bronchial or Resp Tree because of branching pattern, the conducting network within the lungs
Alveoli thin-walled air sacs within the respiratory zone
Respiratory bronchioles the resp zone begins as the terminal bronchioles feed into these in the lungs
Alveolar Ducts resp bronchioles lead into these winding ducts whose walls consists of diffusely arranged rings of smooth muscle cells, connective tissue fibers, and outpocketing of alveoli
Alveolar Sacs terminal clusters of alveoli, resembles a bunch of grapes
Type I cells single layer of squamous epithelial cells in the alveolar walls, surrounded by flimsy basal lamina
Type II cells simple cuboidal cells that secrete a fluid containing surfactant that coats the gas exposed alveolar surfaces
Respiratory Membrane together, the alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal laminae form this membrane, an air-blood barrier with gas on 1 side and blood on the other
Alveolar Pores open pores connecting adjacent alveoli allow air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized and provide an alternate route for dz tissue
Alveolar Macrophages dust cells that crawl freely along internal alveolar surfaaces
Lungs paired organs of gas exchange, flank the mediastinum in the thoracic cavity. Right lung has 3 lobes, left has 2 lobes
Function of Lungs primarily air passageways supported by elastic connective tissue stroma
Pulmonary Arteries carry blood returned from the systemic circulation to the lungs, where gas exchange occurs
Pulmonary Veins return newly oxygenated blood back to the heart to be distributed to the body
Bronchial Arteries provide the nutrient blood supply of the lungs
Parietal Pleura lines the thoracic wall and mediastinum
Visceral Pleura covers the external lung surfaces
Pleural Fluid reduces friction during breathing movements
Intrapulmonary pressure pressure w/in the alveoli
Intrapleural pressure pressure w/in the pleural cavity
Inspiration occurs when diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract, increasing dimensions and volume of thorax
Expiration largely passive, occuring when inspiratory muscles relax and lungs recoil
IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome- secondary to inability to form surfactant
Four respiratory volumes tidal, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and residual
Nonrespiratory air movements are voluntary or reflex actions that clear the respiratory passagways or express emotions
Dalton's Law states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts pressure in proportion to its percentage in the total mixture
Henry's Law states that the amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
Composition of Alveolar Gas contains more carbon dioxide and water vapor and considerably less oxygen than atmosphereic air
Hypoxia occurs when inadequate amounts of oxygen are delivered to body tissues. Skin and mucosae may become cyanotic
Carbon Dioxide Transport transported in the blood dissolved in plasma, chemically bound to hemaglobin, and primarily as bicarbonate ion in plasma.
Haldane Effect reflects the greater ability of reduced hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin and to buffer H by combining with it
Eupnea normal resp, rate, rhythm
Created by: butterflee21