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AP1-Chapter 3

notes part 2

what is a mutation? change in the nucleotide sequence of gene
what two things can a mutation cause? cancer and blood disorders
what are the three causes of mutations? exposure to chemicals and radiation or mistakes during DNA replication
what goes into the cell membrane? nutrients
what must go out of the cell membrane? waste
what is permeability? determines which substances can enter and leave the cytoplasm
what does impermeable mean? NOTHING goes in out
what does freely permeable mean? ANYTHING goes in and out
what does selectively permeable mean? only certain things can move in and out
which type of cell membrane do we have? selectively permeable
what are the four things that can be affected by selective permeability? size; electrical charge; molecular shape; lipid solubility
what are the two types of transport? active and passive
what is needed in active transport? energy and ATP
what is the difference with passive transport? no energy is required
what are the tree categories of transport? diffusion (passive), carrier mediated (can be either), vesicular (active)
what is diffusion? movement of area of high concentration to low concentration
what is the goal of diffusion? balance
what is the concentration gradient? difference between high and low concentration
what is concentration? amount of solute in a solvent
what five factors affect diffusion rate? distance needed to move, molecule size, temperature, gradient size, electrical forces
what are the two ways diffusion can be? simple and channel-mediated
what is simple diffusion? materials which diffuse through cell membrane (ex. lipid soluble compounds like alcohols, fatty acids, steroids, and dissolved gases )
what us channel mediated diffusion? materials that must pass through a transmembrane protein channel
what three things affect passage in channel mediated diffusion? size, charge, and interaction with the channel
diffusion of water across a cell membrane osmosis
what occurs across a selectively permeable membrane in osmosis the membrane must be freely permeable to water, but selectively permeable to solutes.
where does water flow during osmosis? water flows toward the higher concentration of solutes because it has a lower amount of water
the force with which pure water moves into that solution as a result of its solute concentration osmotic pressure
what is osmolarity? total solute concentration in an aqueous solution
what is the effect of various osmotic solutions (water) on cells? tonicity
a solution that does NOT cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell isotonic; iso=same tonos(tonic)=tension
what does a cell do in a HPYOtonic solution? cell swells/ruptures (hypo-think HIPPO->get big)
what does a cell do in a HYPERtonic solution? cell shrinks
hypotonic has _____ solutes less
hypertonic has ____ solutes more
hypotonic ______ water through osmosis loses
hypertonic _____ water through osmosis gains
what are the two forms of carrier-mediated transport? facilitated and active
what are the three characteristics of channel-mediated transport? specify, saturation limit, regulation
what are the two mechanisms of channel mediated transport? cotransport and countertransport
what are 2 substances moving in the same direction at the same time called? cotransport
what is it called when 1 substance moving in while another moving out? contertransport
what occurs when carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins? facilitated diffusion
where does a molecule bind to a protein? the receptor site
what are the two types of facilitated diffusion? passive and carrier mediated
what occurs in active transport? move substances AGAINST THE CONCENTRAION GRADIENT from areas of low to high concentration
what is needed for active transport? energy
sodium potassium exchange pump uses which type of transport? active
what does a sodium potassium exchange pump do? moves 3 Na (sodium) out of cell and 2 K (potassium) into the cell
secondary active transport does what? drives glucose transport; ATP pumps the sodium back out
transport vesicles are useful in what two cellular function? endocytosis and exocytosis
what are ligands? receptors (glycoproteins) that bind target molecules
what carries ligands and receptors into the cell? coated vesicles(endosomes)
what does lysosomes do? break down things
what does cell drinking refer to? pinocytosis
what does cell eating refer to? phagocytosis
Created by: Lacey1



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