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Chapter 15

Absolutism and Constitutionalism

TermDefinition
Versailles Palace under Louis XIV,it became the grandest and most impressive palace in all of Europe and was used by him to keep an eye on nobles
First Estate The clergy (1% of the population)
Second Estate Nobles (3-4% of the population)
Third Estate Bourgeoisie (middle class). Most of the population.
Bourbon Dynasty A European royal line that ruled in France from 1589-1793. Henry IV was the first king.
Fronde A series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653 in an attempt to check the growing power of royal government; it's failure prepared the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV’s personal reign.
Cardinal Mazarin Took control of France while Louis XIV was a child. Civil war allowed him to defeat nobles.
corvée Forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects.
Edict of Fountainbleu Revoked the Edict of Nantes (1685)
Intendant System used to weaken the nobility by using middle class or minor nobles to run the government
Louis XIV, "Sun King" known as the sun king, quintessential absolute ruler in European history
"L'état, c'est moi" I'm the government
mercantilism state control over a country's economy in order to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries
bullionism a nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries
Jean-Baptiste Colbert Louis' finance minister; France reached the hight of its mercantilism
Spanish Armada sent by Phillip II in 1588 against England but was defeated by the English in the Channel
Baroque an artistic style influenced by the Catholic Church in Europe; emphasis in emotion movement and granduer (Versailles and Bernini)
Boyars Russian nobles that elected kings but controlled by Peter the great.
Ivan IV ("the Terrible") saw the change of a medieval nation state to an emerging regional power. intelligent but mentally unstable. killed his heir to the throne Also, first tsar of Russia, had a long reign till his death
Cossacks rebellious group of peasants that came about during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, fled central Russia to territories in the south. Also, caused uprisings and searched for a tsar that would reduce heavy taxes
nobility of the sword old nobles that were replaced and not aloud to to influence the royal council
nobility of the robe the new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy, became high officials in the government and remained loyal to the king.
cardnial Richelieu laid foundation for absolutism in France and weakened the nobility by establishing the intendant system.
Cabinet system political system where heads of governmental administrative departments serve as a group to advise the head of state. All these ministers are drawn from the majority party in the legislature (in Britain the House of Commons) and are responsible to it.
Prime Minister The most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system-Leader of the government.
The Bill of Rights an act declaring the rights and liberties of the subject and settling the succession of the crown
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government(1690) English political philosopher;he stated that the people create a government to protect their "natural rights"of life,liberty and property
Toleration Act, 1689 Granted right to worship for Protestant non-conformists(e.g. Puritans,Quakers) although they could not hold office; did not extend religious liberties to Catholics,Jews or Unitarians
Act of Settlement, 1701 an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns and thrones on the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England) and her non-Roman Catholic heirs
English Civil War series of conflicts and battles between Roundheads(Parliament) and the Cavaliers(nobility) of Charles I over how the government should work.
"Long Parliament" Charles I gave into demands of Parliament, stating Parliament was to meet at least once every three years and forbidding it to be abolished.
"Short Parliament" Parliament established by Charles I in attempt to impose the English Common Book of Prayer on the Scottish Presbyterian Church but failed.
Cavaliers A supporter of King Charles I in the English Civil War
Roundheads A member or supporter of the Parliamentary party in the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell An English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
New Model Army Formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
Petition of Rights ,1628 Parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basis legal rights in return for granting tax increase.
Charles I Son of James I, claimed "divine right" theory of absolute authority for himself as king and sought to rule without parliament
James I believed in "divine right" theory of absolute authority for himself as king and sought to rule without Parliament
Staurt Dynasty Ruled England for most of the 17 century,exhibited absolutist tendancies they were retrained by the growth of Parliament .
"divine right" of Kings authority and power is the responsibility of god
"Rump" Parliament the remainder of the Long Parliament after Pride's Purge established by the expulsion of the Presbyterian members in 1648. it sat from 1648-1653
Quakers believed in an "inner light",a divine spark that existed in each person. Rejected church authority;were Pacifist;and also allowed women to play a role in preaching.
Absolutism the idea that the monarchy has all the power and does not share it with anyone (ie the nobles)
Thomas Hobbes He wrote the Leviathan (1651) and in it he described the pessimistic view of human beings in a state of nature. He was in favor of the absolute monarchy.
"Divine right" of kings The king was placed on throne by God, and therefore owed his authority to no man or group.
Peterhof Peter the Great in Russia built this , largely on the influence of Versailles
Winter Palace Catherine built this in St. Petersburg, one of the most glorious examples of baroque architecture in Russia
Constitutionalism Government power is limited by law. There is a delicate balance between the power of government and the rights and liberties of individuals.
House of Commons England's lower house in Parliament
Romanov dynasty Rulers of Russia from 1613 until the Russian Revolution of February 1917.
"Old Believers" Member of a group of Russian religious dissenters who refused to accept the liturgical reforms imposed upon the Russian Orthodox Church by patriarch of Moscow Nikon (1652-58).
Peter the Great Tsar of Russia who reigned jointly with his half-brother Ivan V and who is 1721 was proclaimed emperor. He was one of his country's greatest statesmen, organizers, and reformers.
Table of Ranks was a formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government, and court of Imperial Russia. The Emperor Peter the Great introduced the system in 1722
St. Petersburg Fortress built by Peter the Great. Referred to as "Window to the West" and its architecture was remolded after European designs. It became the new capital of Russia.
Created by: birmingham