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68C Ch.9 Ph.1 T.4

Hole's Essentials of A&P Chapter 9: Nervous System

axon cylindrical nerve fiber that carries impulses away from a neuron cell
dendrite BRANCHED nerve cell process that serves as main receptor surface of a neuron
ganglion mass of neuron cell bodies, part of the PNS
synapse junction between two neurons
Myelin sheath Lipoprotein layer covers axons that insulate and protect. Function to increase the speed of conduction through neuron
Node of Ranvier Narrow gaps in myelin sheath between Schwann cells
Nerve cordlike bundle of peripheral axon/nerve fibers within layers of connective tissue
Neuron conduction (2 methods) a.Saltatory conduction-nerve impulse jumps across gaps along length of axon b.Continuous conduction-travel entire length of axon
Synapse junction between two communicating neurons, NOT in direct contact with each other. CHEMICAL=most common
Two factors that influence the rate of conduction of an impulse 1.axon's diameter 2.presence/absence of myelin sheath
Reflex Arc automatic subconscious responses to changes in/out of the body, synapse in the spinal cord, simplest of nerve pathways
General function of neurons react to physical and chemical changes in surroundings
Common parts of the neuron (3) Dendrite, axon, cell body
Sensory neurons afferent neurons, transmit nerve impulses from peripheral body parts into the brain/spinal cord. Long dendrite, short axon
Interneurons lie entirely within brain/spinal cord, link other neurons
Motor neurons efferent neurons, multipolar, transmit impulses out of brain/spinal cord to effectors, long axon short dendrites
Schwann cells myelin-producing neuroglia of the PNS
Neurons can be grouped in two main ways.. Structural differences(bipolar,unipolar,multipolar) and functional differences(sensory,interneurons,motor neurons)
Cerebrum largest portion of the brain associated with higher mental functions, interpretation of sensory input, initiating voluntary muscular movements
Cerebellum coordinates muscular activity, integrates sensory information about position of body parts and coordinates skeletal muscle activity
3 meninges a.dura mater b.arachnoid c.pia mater
Choriod plexuses specialized capillaries from the pia mater, secrete cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid cushions brain, decreases effective weight, clear/odorless, nutritive functions
Dura mater outermost layer, tough, white fibrous connective tissue, highly vascular "tough mother"
Arachnoid Thin web-like, avascular
Pia mater thin delicate innermost layer, nerves and blood vessels
Created by: ajwildasin30