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Reformation (Ch. 14)

simony sale of church offices
pluralism an official holding more than one office at a time
nepotism favoring family members in the appointment of Church offices
absenteeism an official not participating in benefices but receiving payment and privileges
sale of indulgences people paying money to the church to absolve their sins or sins of their loved ones
clerical ignorance many people were virtually illiterate
Martin Luther (1483-1546) Augustinian monk. Criticized the selling of indulgences but went further than others before him by questioning the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences.
Johann Tetzel Authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences so that he could pay for the building of St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome.
95 Theses (1517) 95 points that criticized the church and the selling of indulgences, written by Martin Luther.
Johann Eck Great catholic theologian who debated against Luther at Leipzig in 1519.
“priesthood of all believers” what Luther believed that the church should be consisted of; not hierarchical structure
Diet of Worms (1521) Tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire w/ power to outlaw and sentence execution through stake-burning. Edict of Worms: outlawed Luther as heretic by HRE
Edict of Worms outlawed Luther as heretic by HRE
Emperor Charles V Wanted to stop Protestantism and save Catholicism, but was preoccupied w/ Turkish threat in Hungary
German Peasants Revolt Inspired by Luther. 100,000 peasants died during the uprising. Both Catholic and Lutheran forces took part in crushing the revolt.
Twelve Aticles (1524-1525) peasants demanded end of serfdom and tithes, and other practices of feudalism that oppressed the peasants (e.g. hunting rights).
League of Schmalkalden (1531) Formed by Lutheran princes to defend themselves from Charles V drive to re-Catholicize Germany.
Habsburg-Valois Wars (1521-1555) Five wars between France and the Habsburgs over Italy (France tried to keep Germany Divided).
Peace of Augsburg (1555) Temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism (Princes in Germany could choose either Protestantism or Catholicism and people of different faiths could move to an area of different faith).
anabaptists (formed in 1525 in Zurich, Switzerland) No connection or allegiance to any state. Rejected secular agreements, refused to take civil oaths, pay taxes, hold public office, or serve in the military. Didn't believe in childhood baptism.
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) – Swiss Reformation. Preached from Erasmus. Zwingli adopted Lutheranism and established what amounted to a theocracy in Zurich. He saw the Eucharist as only symbolic. 1st dispute among Protestants dealing with issues of doctrine.
Zurich Where Zwingli's theocracy was formed.
John Calvin (1509-1564) Frenchman; studied to be a priest and later trained as a lawyer. Influenced by humanism, Erasmus. Exiled to Switzerland due to his reform ideas. Foundational work for Calvinism.
predestination Since God is all-knowing, He already knows who is going to Heaven and who is destined for Hell.
Geneva Where Calvin established a theocracy by 1540. New center of the Reformation in Europe. Home to Protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas.
Protestant work ethic Calvinists emphasized importance of hard work and accompanying financial success as sign that God was pleased.
John Knox (1505-1572) Established Presbyterianism in Scotland in 1560.
Presbyterianism (1560) Established by John Knox in Scotland. Presbyters governed church. Became dominant religion in Scotland.
Huguenots French Calvinists; brutally suppressed in France.
Puritans England. Pressured Elizabeth I for more reforms but were largely kept at bay. Later established colonies in America in a region that came to be known as New England: e.g. Massachusetts, Connecticut. Victorious in the English Civil War (1642-49).
English Reformation Series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Catholic Church.
Henry VIII (1509-1547) 2nd of the Tudor monarchs. Earlier been a conservative Catholic and was critical of Lutheranism and reform and the Pope. Because he couldn't get divorced, he started his own church (the Church of England) with his own rules.
Catherine of Aragon Who Henry VIII sought an annulment from because she could not give him a son, only conceived Mary.
Anne Boleyn Mistress of Henry VIII.
Church of England (Anglican Church) Church that Henry VIII establishes after breaking away from the Catholic church due to the inability of Pope Clement VII to grant a papal dispensation after 1527.
Act of Supremacy (1534) Made the king officially head of the church.
Edward VI (1547-1553) England moved towards Protestantism during his reign by adopting Calvinism. Clergy could marry. Denial of transubstantiation. Death led to religious struggle among Protestants and Catholics.
Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) (1553-1558) Tried to reimpose Catholicism. Daughter of Henry & Catherine of Aragon. Earlier married Philip II, future heir to Spanish throne. Protestants fled England fearing persecution. 300 people executed.
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) (Virgin Queen) Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Catholics saw her as an “illegitimate” child. Strongly Protestant. Effectively oversaw the development of Protestantism in England.
politique Putting the success and well-being of their state above all else when in a position of power.
Elizabethan Settlement Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately.
Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) Defined the creed of Anglican Church.
Mary Stuart (1542-67) (Queen of Scots) Cousin to Elizabeth I. Queen of Scotland. Imprisoned in the Tower of London b/c of numerous plots to take the throne from Elizabeth. Beheaded. Son James became King of both Scotland and England.
Ursuline order of Nuns Founded by Angela Merici in the 1530s to provide education and religious training. Established a foundation for the future of young girls within the church. Combated heresy through Christian education.
Catholic (Counter) Reformation Sought to improve church discipline through existing doctrine. Both a response to the gains of Protestantism and response to critics within church that abuses needed to be reformed.
Pope Paul III (1534-1549) Sought to improve church discipline through existing doctrine.
Council of Trent (1545-1563) Established Catholic dogma for the next four centuries.
Index of Prohibited Books Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Church (e.g. Erasmus) were banned from Catholic countries. Anyone possessing books listed in the Index could be punished severely.
Jesuits (Society of Jesus) (1540) Founded by Ignatius Loyola. Reform church through education. Spread the Gospel to pagan peoples. Fight Protestantism. Oversaw both the Spanish and Italian Inquisitions.
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) Spanish knight who later became a priest. Founded the Jesuits and ran them in miliary style.
Baroque Art Began in Catholic Reformation countries to teach in a concrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and power of the Catholic Church. Sought to overwhelm viewer. Reflected the image and power of absolute monarchs and the Catholic church.
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) Personified baroque architecture and sculpture. Colonnade for piazza in front of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome was greatest architectural achievement. Sculpted St. Peter’s Baldachin. Sculpted The Ecstasy of St. Teresa. Several fountains.
Colonnade in piazza in front of St. Peter’s Basilica classic architecture, long sequence of columns. By Bernini.
Caravaggio (1571-1610) Roman painter. First important painter of the Baroque era. Highly emotional scenes. Used tenebrism. Criticized by some for using ordinary people as models for his depictions of Biblical scenes.
tenebris sharp contrasts of light and dark to create drama
Created by: jayzsmyagent