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Med. Terms. A&P III

Medical Terminology for Nervous/Endocrine Systems

TermDefinition
Corticoids (Endocrine System) hormones secreted by the three cell layers of the adrenal cortex
Cretinism (Endocrine System) dwarfism caused by hypo-secretion of the thyroid gland
Cushing's Syndrome (Endocrine System) a condition caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex
Diabetes Insipidus (Endocrine System) a condition resulting from hyposecretion of ADH in which large volumes of urine are formed and if left untreated, may cause serious health problems
Diabetes Mellitus (Endocrine System) a condition resulting when the pancreatic islets secrete too little insulin, resulting in increased levels of blood glucose. (Disturbs carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism.)
Endocrine (Endocrine System) secreting into the blood or tissue fluid rather than into a duct
Exocrine (Endocrine System) secreting into a duct
Exophthalmos (Endocrine System) abnormal protrusion of the eyes
Gigantism (Endocrine System) condition produced by hypersecretion of growth hormone during the early years of life; results in a child who grows to gigantic size
Glucocorticoids (Endocrine System) hormones that influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism; secreted by the adrenal cortex
Gluconeogenesis (Endocrine System) formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds
Goiter (Endocrine System) enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hormone (Endocrine System) substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood
Mineralocorticoids (Endocrine System) hormone that influences mineral salt metabolism (electrolyte concentrations); secreted by adrenal cortex; aldosterone is the chief mineralocorticoid
Myxedema (Endocrine System) condition caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults
Parathyroid Glands (Endocrine System) set of glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland
Prostaglandins (Endocrine System) group of naturally occurring fatty acids that affect many body functions
Target Cells (Endocrine System) organ or cell acted on by a particular hormone and responding to it
Anosmia (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) complete or partial loss of sense of smell
Anopia (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) absence of an eye
Aqueous Humor (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) thin, clear watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the lens (anterior and posterior chamber).
Blepharities (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) inflammation of the eyelid margins
Choroid (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) middle, vascular layer of the eye
Cochlea (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) coiled tube in the inner ear
Conjunctivitis (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) inflammation of the conjunctiva
Cornea (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber
Cranial Nerve (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) a nerve that arises from the underside of the brain or the brainstem
Diplopia (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) double vision
Hemianopia (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) blindness in one half of the visual field
Iris (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) colored muscular part of the eye
Labyrinth (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) complex system of connecting chambers and tubes of the inner ear
Lacrimal Gland (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) tear gland
Sclera (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) tough outer protective layer of the eye
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) consists of the cranial and spinal nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles. The SNS controls conscious activities
Special Senses (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) senses that stem from receptors associated with specialized sensory organs; nose eye, ear, tongue
Tympanic Membrane (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) eardrum
Vitreous Humor (Cranial Nerves & Special Senses) clear jellylike substance within the posterior cavity of the eye
Afferent Neurons (Nervous System) sensory neurons
Arachnoid Mater (Nervous System) delicate, web-like middle layer of meninges
Ascending Tracts (Nervous System) nerve tracts in the spinal cord that carry information to the brain
Autonomic Nervous System (visceral nervous system) (Nervous System) portion of nervous system that regulates the activities of the internal organs (viscera)
Axon (Nervous System) nerve fiber; conducts an nerve impulse away from the neuron cell body
Central Nervous System (Nervous System) brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid (Nervous System) fluid in the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord
Dendrite (Nervous System) process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons
Descending Tracts (Nervous System) process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons
Dura Mater (Nervous System) tough outer layer of meninges
Efferent Neurons (Nervous System) motor neurons
Ganglia (Nervous System) a mass of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS
Gyri (Nervous System) ridges or convolutions on the surface of the Cerebrum separated by shallow grooves called a sulcus or deep groove called a fissure
Meninges (Nervous System) membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
Motor Neuron (Nervous System) efferent neurons carry impulse out of brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands
Myelin (Nervous System) fatty material that forms a sheath like covering around some axons
Neuron (Nervous System) nerve cell
Neurotransmitter (Nervous System) chemical that an axon end secretes on an effector (muscle or gland) or another neuron
Nervous System Homeostasis (Nervous System) through sensation of changes in the internal and external environment, and the responses to those changes, the nervous system coordinates all other body systems to maintain homeostasis
Nodes of Ranvier (Nervous System) narrow gaps in the Schwann cells (myelin sheath) –that allow the impulse is conducted from node to node (Saltatory conduction) and thus is sped up
Parasympathetic Nervous System (Nervous System) portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord; most active under normal, restful conditions and counterbalances sympathetic nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System) portion of the nervous system outside the central nervous system
Pia Mater (Nervous System) inner layer of meninges that encloses the brain and spinal cord
Receptors (Nervous System) cell surface structures that detect changes in the environment and transmit a signal to the inside of the neuron
Resting Potential (Nervous System) the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane
Sensory Neuron (Nervous System) neuron that transmits an impulse from a receptor to the central nervous system
Spinal Cord (Nervous System) portion of the central nervous system extending from the brain stem through the vertebral cord
Subarachnoid Space (Nervous System) space within the meninges between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
Sulcus (Nervous System) shallow groove on the surface of the brain
Sympathetic Nervous System (Nervous System) portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord; prepares the body for energy-expending, stressful, or emergency situations
Synapse (Nervous System) connection between the axon of a neuron and the dendrite of another neuron
3 Major Sections of a Neuron (Nervous System) Cell Body - contains typical organelles usually found in cells Dendrites - highly branched extension of cell body Axon - slender, cylindrical process of cell body that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body
Functions of a Neuron (Nervous System) Reacts to changes in their surroundings and transmits information in the form of impulses
Types of Neurons (Nervous System) Sensory Neurons, Intesetrneurons, Motor Neurons
Types of Sensory Neurons (Nervous System) Afferent, Mostly Unipolar, some Bipolar
Types of Interneurons (Nervous System) Multipolar
Types of Motor Neurons (Nervous System) Efferent, Multipolar
Sensory Neuron Structure and Function (Nervous System) Tpyically have a long dendrite and short axon, and carrys messages from sensory receptors to the central nervous system; Multipolar - 1 Axon & the rest are Dendrites; Unipolar - A single process
Interneurons Locations (Nervous System) found only in the central nervous system where they connect neuron to neuron
Motor Neurons Structure and Functions (Nervous System) Have a long axon and short dendrites and transmit messages from the central nervous system to the muscles (or to the glands)
Nerve Covering (Nervous System) fibrous connective tissues; Endorneurium, Perineurium, Epineurium
Endoneurium (Nervous System) surrounds individual fibers within a nerve
Perineurium (Nervous System) surrounds a group (fascicle) of nerve fibers
Epineurium (Nervous System) surrounds the entire nerve
Nerves Make-up(Nervous System) bundle of peripheral axons
Tract (Nervous System) bundle of central axons
White Matter (Nervous System) tissue composed primarily of myelinated axons (nerves or tracts)
Gray Matter (Nervous System) tissues composed primarily of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
Efferent (Nervous System) conducted or conducting outward or away from something (for nerves, the central nervous system; for blood vessels, the organ supplied).
Afferent (Nervous System) conducting or conducted inward or toward something (for nerves, the central nervous system; for blood vessels, the organ supplied).
How is Myelin Sheath Formed (Nervous System) Formed from the plasma membranes of specialized glial cells known as Schawnn cells
Function of Myelin Sheath (Nervous System) Functions to increase the speed of conduction through neuron
Dura Mater (Nervous System) Outermost layer, composed of tough, white fibrous connective tissue, contains many bloods vessels and nerves.
Arachnoid (Nervous System) Thin, web-like membrane that lacks blood vessels. Located between the dura mater and pia mater
Subarachnoid Space (Nervous System) CSF filled space between arachnoid and pia mater
Pia Mater (Nervous System) Thin delicate innermost layer attached to the organ surface, contains nerves and blood vessels, contains cauliflower-like masses of specialized capillaries called Choroid Plexus
Cranial Nerve 1 (Nervous System) Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve 2 (Nervous System) Optic
Cranial Nerve 3 (Nervous System) Oculomotor
Cranial Nerve 4 (Nervous System) Trochlear
Cranial Nerve 5 (Nervous System) Trigeminal
Cranial Nerve 6 (Nervous System) Abducens
Cranial Nerve 7 (Nervous System) Facial
Cranial Nerve 8 (Nervous System) Vestibulocochlear
Cranial Nerve 9 (Nervous System) Glossopharyngeal
Cranial Nerve 10 (Nervous System) Vagus
Cranial Nerve 11 (Nervous System) Spinal Accessory
Cranial Nerve 12 (Nervous System) Hypoglossal
Created by: mdlavin