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Exam 4 A & P 3

TermDefinition
Corticoids hormones secreted by the three cell layers of the adrenal cortex
Cretinism dwarfism caused by hypo-secretion of the thyroid gland
Cushing's Syndrome a condition caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex
Diabetes Insipidus a condition resulting from hyposecretion of ADH in which large volumes of urine are formed and if left untreated, may cause serious health problems.
Diabetes Mellitus a condition resulting when the pancreatic islets secrete too little insulin, resulting in increased levels of blood glucose. (Disturbs carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism.)
Endocrine secreting into the blood or tissue fluid rather than into a duct
Exocrine secreting into a duct
Exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyes.
Gigantism condition produced by hypersecretion of growth hormone during the early years of life; results in a child who grows to gigantic size
Glucocorticoids hormones that influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism; secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Gluconeogenesis formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds
Goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hormone substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood
Mineralocorticoids hormone that influences mineral salt metabolism (electrolyte concentrations); secreted by adrenal cortex; aldosterone is the chief mineralocorticoid
Myxedema condition caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults
Parathyroid Glands set of glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland
Prostaglandins group of naturally occurring fatty acids that affect many body functions
Target Cells organ or cell acted on by a particular hormone and responding to it
Anosmia complete or partial loss of sense of smell
Anopia absence of an eye
Aqueous Humor thin, clear watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the lens (anterior and posterior chamber).
Blepharities inflammation of the eyelid margins
Choroid middle, vascular layer of the eye
Cochlea coiled tube in the inner ear
Conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
Cornea the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber
Cranial Nerve a nerve that arises from the underside of the brain or the brainstem
Diplopia double vision
Hemianopia blindness in one half of the visual field
Iris colored muscular part of the eye
Labyrinth complex system of connecting chambers and tubes of the inner ear
Lacrimal Gland tear gland
Sclera tough outer protective layer of the eye
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) consists of the cranial and spinal nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles. The SNS controls conscious activities
Special Senses senses that stem from receptors associated with specialized sensory organs; nose eye, ear, tongue
Tympanic Membrane eardrum
Vitreous Humor clear jellylike substance within the posterior cavity of the eye
Afferent Neurons sensory neurons
Arachnoid Mater delicate, web-like middle layer of meninges
Ascending Tracts nerve tracts in the spinal cord that carry information to the brain
Autonomic Nervous System (visceral nervous system) portion of nervous system that regulates the activities of the internal organs (viscera)
Axon nerve fiber; conducts an nerve impulse away from the neuron cell body
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid fluid in the ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord
Dendrite process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons
Descending Tracts nerve tracts in the spinal cord that carry information from the brain to the muscles and glands
Dura Mater tough outer layer of meninges
Efferent Neurons motor neurons
Ganglia a mass of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS
Gyri ridges or convolutions on the surface of the Cerebrum separated by shallow grooves called a sulcus or deep groove called a fissure
Meninges membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
Motor Neuron efferent neurons carry impulse out of brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands
Myelin fatty material that forms a sheath like covering around some axons
Neuron nerve cell
Neurotransmitter chemical that an axon end secretes on an effector (muscle or gland) or another neuron
Nervous System Homeostasis through sensation of changes in the internal and external environment, and the responses to those changes, the nervous system coordinates all other body systems to maintain homeostasis
Nodes of Ranvier narrow gaps in the Schwann cells (myelin sheath) –that allow the impulse is conducted from node to node (Saltatory conduction) and thus is sped up
Parasympathetic Nervous System portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord; most active under normal, restful conditions and counterbalances sympathetic nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System portion of the nervous system outside the central nervous system
Pia Mater inner layer of meninges that encloses the brain and spinal cord
Receptors cell surface structures that detect changes in the environment and transmit a signal to the inside of the neuron
Resting Potential the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane
Sensory Neuron neuron that transmits an impulse from a receptor to the central nervous system
Spinal Cord portion of the central nervous system extending from the brain stem through the vertebral cord
Subarachnoid Space space within the meninges between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater
Sulcus shallow groove on the surface of the brain
Sympathetic Nervous System portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord; prepares the body for energy-expending, stressful, or emergency situations
Synapse connection between the axon of a neuron and the dendrite of another neuron
Created by: soswpwp