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organs of Integumentary System Skin, Hair, Nails, Sebaceous glands, Sweat glands
Sebaceous glands oil glands, lubricates the skin surface, Secrete the oil sebum
Epidermis thin, outer membrane layer, composed of stratified squamous epithelium, basal layer is the deepest layer of the epidermis
Dermis Middle fibrous connective tissue layer, also called the corium, living tissue with blood supply
Subcutaneous innermost layer of fatty tissue, also called hypodermis, composed of fat cells called lipocytes
Basal layer keratin is found here. keratin is a hard protein from dead cells,
melanocytes cells of basal layer, produce melanin, gives skin color, protects against ultraviolet rays of sun
Apocrine glands found in pubic and underarm area, thicker sweat that can produce an odor
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dermatologist skin specialist
Dermatopathy skin disease
dermatoplasty surgical repair of skin
anhidrosis abnormal condition of no sweat
hyperhidrosis abnormal condition of excessive sweat
erythroderma red skin
ichthyoderma scaly, dry skin
leukoderma white skin
pyoderma pus skin
scleroderma hard skin
xeroderma dry skin
abrasion friction scraping away skin surface
contusion injury caused by a blow; causes swelling, pain, and bruising
Cyanosis bluish tint to skin caused by deoxygenated blood
dermatology diagnosis and treatment of skin conditions; physician is a dermatologist
ecchymosis blood collecting under skin following blunt trauma, a bruise
erythema red flushing of skin
Hirsutism excessive hair growth
Keloid thick hypertrophic scar
petechiae spots from minute hemorrhages under the skin
purpura skin hemorrhage due to fragile blood vessels
cyst fluid-filled sac under skin
fissure crack like lesion on skin
laceration torn or jagged wound
macule flat, discolored spot on skin
nodu5cmle firm, solid mass larger that 0.
abscess collection of pus in skin
burn skin damaged caused by fire, electricity, ultraviolet light, or caustic chemicals; percentage of skin burned is estimated by Rule of Nines
papule small, solid raised spot smaller that 0.5 cm
pustulpe raised spot on skin containing pus
first degree burn skin reddened and painful, no blisters; damage to epidermis
Second degree burns skin reddened and painful with blister;
Third degree burn skin charred; epidermis and dermis burned away; subcutaneous layer exposed
impetigo highly infectious bacterial infection with pustules that rupture and crust over
Kaposi's Sarcoma skin cancer seen in AIDS patients; brownish-purple lesions
Scabies mite infestation
Varicella contagious viral infection; chickenpox
alopecia absence or loss of hair; baldness
culture and sensitivity (C&S) grows bacteria removed from infected area to identify infecting bacteria; then determines sensitivity to various antibiotics
Biopsy (BX,bx) removalof piece of tissue to examine under a microscope; aids in diagnosis
skin graft (SG) transfer of skin from normal area to cover another site
allograft skin graft from one person to another
autograft skik graft from a person's own body
hererograft skin graft from an animal of another species; usually a pig; xenograft
xenograft skin graft from an animal of another species; usually a pig; hererograft
dermatome instrument for cutting skin or for producing thin transplants of skin
cauterization destruction of tissue by using chemicals, electricity, heat, or freezing
debridement removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue
Incision and drainage (I&D) making an incision to drain material such as pus
Red Bone Marrow produces blood cells
Joint place where two bones meet held together by ligaments gives flexibility to skelton
Long bones longer than wide femur humerus
short bones roughly as long as wide carpals tarsals
flat bones plate shaped sternum scapula pelvis
Irregular bones shape very irregular vertebrae
Diaphysis central shaft, medullary cavity, yellow bone marrow
Epiphysis wide ends of bone, distal epiphysis, proximal epiphysis
compact bone cortical bone
cancellous bone found inside bone, has spaces containing red bone marrow, manufactures blood cells
Head (Bone) large smooth ball-shaped end of a long bone
Condyle (Bone) smooth rounded portion at end of bone
Epicondyle (bone) projection above or on a condyle
Trochanter (Bone) Large rough process
Tubercle (Bone) small rough process
Tuberosity (Bone) Large rough process
Sinus hollow cavity within bone
Foramen smooth opening for nerves and blood vessels
Fossa shallow cavity or depression within a bone
Fissure Deep groove or slit-like opening
Axial Skeleton Head, neck, spine, chest, trunk
Skull two parts cranium facial bones
The Trunk vertebral column, sternum, rib cage
Vertebral column Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5)
Rib cage True ribs; 10 pairs attached to sternum in front, Floating ribs; inferior 2 pair, no attachment in front
Appendicular Skeleton pectoral girdle, upper extremity, pelvic girdle, lower extremity
Pectoral Girdle Clavical- collar bone scapula- shoulder bone
Upper extremity humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
Synovial Joints Most common type of Joint
Arthralgia joint pain
artherocentesis puncture to withdraw fluid form joint
arthrogram record of a joint
arthritis joint inflammation
arthroscope instrument to view joint
ostealgia bone pain
chriopractic practice of treating patients using manipulations of vertebral column; practitioner is a chiropractor
Kyphosis abnormal increase in curve of thoracic spine; humpback
lordosis abnormal increase in forward curvature of lumbar spine; swayback
Closed fracture fracture with no open skin wound; also called simple fracture
colles' fracture common wrist fracture
comminuted fracture fracture where bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed wound
compound fracture fracture with an open skin wound; also called an open fracture
Compression fracture fracture with loss of height in vertebral body; often from osteoporosis
Fracture (FX, Fx) broken bone
green stick fracture incomplete break; one side of bone is broken, the other is bent; common in children
impacted fracture bone fragments are pushed into each other
oblique fracture fracture at an angle to bone
transverse fracture fracture is straight across bone
rickets lack of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, results in one deformities like bowed legs
scoliosis lateral curve of spine
osteoarthritis (OA) results in degeneration of bone and joints; bone rubs against bone
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) autoimmune inflammation of joints with swelling, stiffness, pain, results in joint deformities
arthrography visualizing joint by x-ray after injecting contrast medium into joint
arthroscopy examining interior of joint with an arthroscope, a fiberoptic camera; view of joint interior appears on monitor during procdeure
spinal fusion surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae
Fasci/o fibrous band
fibr/o fibers
kinesi/o movement
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
myocardi/o heart muscle
myos/o muscle
plant/o sole of foot
ten/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
Types of Muscle Skeletal Smooth Cardiac
Origin less moveable of 2 bones
Insertion more moveable of 2 bones
abduction movement away form midline of body
adduction movement toward midline of body
flexion act of bending or being bent
extension brings limb into a straight condition
dorsiflextion backward bending of foot
plantar flexion bending sole of foot; pointing toes
eversion turning outward
inversion turning inward
pronation turning palm downward
supination turning palm upward
elevation to raise
depression to drop down
myalgia muscle pain
myocardial pertaining to the heart muscle
myoplasty surgical repair of muscle
myorrhaphy suture of muscle
myorrhexis muscle rupture
bradykinesia slow movement
dyskinesia difficult movement
hyperkinesia excessive movement
hypokinesia insufficient movement
tendinitis tendon inflammation
fibromyalgia widespread aching and pain in muscles and soft tissue
muscle biopsy removal of muscle tissue for examination
organs of cardiovascular system heart, arteries, capillaries, veins
pulmonary circulation between heart and lungs, carries deoxygenated blood away from right side of heart to lungs, carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left side of heart
Systemic Circulation between heard and cells of body, carries oxygenated blood away from left side of heart to body, carries deoxygenated blood from body to right side of heart
Heart chambers 2 atria, 2 ventricles heart is divided into right and left sides by a wall called the septum
Heart valves Tricuspid, Pulmonary, Mitral (bicuspid), aortic
Aorta carries blood to all parts of the body
Diastole relaxation of heart chamber
Systole contraction of heart chamber
Sinoatrial (SA) Node pacemaker of the heart, electrical impulse begins
coronary arteries supply blood to myocardium
ventricular systole gives highest blood pressure- systolic top reading on BP
Ventricular diastole blood pressure drops to lowest point- diastolic bottom reading on BP
angiogram record of a vessel
angioplasty surgical repair of a vessel
angiostenosis narrowing of a vessel
cardiac pertaining to the heart
bradycardia state of slow heart rate
electrocardiogram record of hearts electricity
cardiomegaly enlarged heart
myocardial pertaining to heart muscle
cardiologist heart specialist
cardiorrhexis ruptured heart
tachycardia state of fast heart rate
valvulities inflammation of a valve
venogram record of vein
auscultation listening to sounds within body using a stethoscope
cardiology branch of medicine for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease; physician is a cardiologist
catheter flexible tube inserted in body to move fluids into or out of body; may be used to place dye into a vein to view blood vessels
palpitations pounding, racing heart beats
regurgitation to flow backwards; in CV system refers to backflow of blood through valve
arrhythmia irregularity in heartbeat; some are mild and others are life threatening
cardiac arrest complete stopping of the heart activity
cardiomyopathy myocardial disease; may be caused by viral infection, congestive heart failure, or alcoholism; common reason for heart transplant
congestive heart failure (CHF) left ventricle muscle is too weak to efficiently pump blood; results in weakness, breathlessness, and edema
coronary artery disease (CAD) poor blood supply to heart muscle due to obstruction of coronary arteries; may cause angina pectoris and heart attack
fibrillation extremely serous arrhythmia characterized by quivering of heart fibers; cardiac arrest and death can occur
myocardial infarction (MI) occlusion of coronary artery, heart attack
aneurysm weakness and ballooning of arterial wall
embolus obstruction of blood vessel by blood clot that has broken off from a thrombus in another site
hemorrhoid varicose veins in the anal region
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure;
thrombus blood clot within a blood vessel
varicose veins swollen and distended veins; often in the legs
electrocardiography process of recording electrical activity of heart;
stress testing evaluates cardiovascular fitness
AFB atrial fibrillation
AMI acute myocardial infarction
AS arteriosclerosis
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV, A-V atrioventricular
BBB bundle branch block
BP Blood pressure
bpm beats per minute
CABG coronary artery bypassgraft
CAD coronary artery disease
cath catheterization
CC cardiac catherterization, chief complaint
CCU coronary care unit
CHF congestive heart failure
CoA coarctation of the aorta
CP chest pain
CPK creatine phosphokinase
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CSD congenital septal defect
CV Cardiovascular
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECC extracorporeal circulation
ECG, EKG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiogram
GOT lutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
HTN hypertension
ICU intravenous
LDH lactate dehydrogenase
LVAD left ventricular assist device
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
MI myocardial infraction, mitral insufficiency
mmHg millimeters of mercury
MR mitral regurgitation
MS mitral stenosis
MVP mitral valve prolapse
P pulse
PAC premature atrial contraction
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PTCA percutaneous transluminalcoronary angioplasty
PVC premature ventricular contraction
S1 first heart sound
S2 second heart sound
SA, S-A sinoatrial
SGOT serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transminase
SK streptokinase
tPA tissue-type plasminogen activator
Vfib ventricular fibrillation
VSD ventricular septal defect
VT ventricular tachycardia
Created by: BrendaBrock33



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