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chapter 5

Vertebrate Development

Von Baer,1828 "on the development of Animals".embryos develop from general to specific.he first described mammalian egg and notochord
Garstang,1922 started the theory of paleogenesis.descendant ontogenies(development) tend to preserve ancestral ontogenies.ex:humans do not go through a "fish" stage, but they do have pharyngeal slits(not gills) in early embryology,like fish embroys
paleogenesis appearance of ancestral characteristics in successive generations
Ancestor development zygote-structure a,b,c,d,
descendant development zygote-structure a,b,c,d,e,f,g. More complex= longer development time.shorter development is better for organisms.
what are the solutions to the long development plan? accleration,abreviation,toleration
acceleration heat(environment), catalyst(enzymes). internal body heat(endothermy).
abbreviation retain juvenile features in to adult hood(neoteny). ex Nectural salamander(still has gills slits)
toleration behavioral ways to help embryo if cant shorten time. ex;bigger yolk in developing egg,switching from egg birth to live birth(VIVIPARITY)(able to provide more food).
Altricial are helpless at birth (baby mice,kangaroos)
precocial well developed at birth.lessens the degree of parental care.
blastula hollow ball of cells
gastrulation formaulation of gut tube
enrocoel hollow gut tube
lumen hollow part of an organ
what are the mesoderm regions chordamesoderm,epimere,mesomere,hypomere
chordamesoderm becomes notochord,induces neurulation(formation of nerve cord)
epimere in blocks=somites. separates into 3 layers(skin dermis,skeletal muscle,vertebrae)
skin dermis outer somites
skeletal muscle middle somite
vertebrae inner somite
mesomere kidneys
hypomere not segmented. splits into 2 layers.coelom lining(peritoneum).smooth muscle around gut tube.heart/circulatory system(vessels).skeleton of body wall/limbs.gonads
ectoderm skin-epidermis.nervous system,sense organs(eye+ears),pigments
endoderm lining of gut(hollow organs).liver,pancreas,lungs.gut tube(anything that buds from it).
Created by: ejohnson17