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Renaissance (Ch. 13)

Italian Renaissance (1300-1527) Time where secularism, humanism, individualism, and classical antiquity was greatly emphasized. Mostly applied to the upper classes. Spread to Northern Europe around 1450.
Republic of Florence Center of the Renaissance during the 14th and 15th centuries. Dominated by the Medici family.
Medici Family Dominated the republic of Florence.
Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464) Allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic. Most powerful of the Medici rulers.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-1492) "The Magnificent”. Significant patron of the arts. Son of Cosimo.
Girolamo Savonarola Unofficial leader of Florence (1494-1498). Pledged to rid Florence of decadence and corruption. Oversaw theocracy in Florence. Imprisoned and burned at stake, when France was removed from Italy in 1498.
"The Prince" (1513) Written by Niccolo Machiavelli. Quintessential political treatise of 16th century. Cesare Borgia was hero. “The ends justifies the means.” “It was better to be feared than to be loved." Lion (aggressive, powerful) & fox (cunning,practical).
Cesare Borgia Son of Pope Alexander VI. Main character in Machiavelli's "The Prince". Had ambitions of uniting Italy under his control.
Niccolo Maciavelli (1469-1527) Author of the quintessential political treatise of 16th century, "The Prince".
Sack of Rome (1527) By armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who was also king of Spain). Symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy.
Humanism Revival of antiquity in philosophy, literature and art. Strong belief in individualism, the great potential of human beings. Idea of excelling in all of one’s pursuits. Key to a good life was Reason and Nature. Northern Europe.
Petrarch (1304-1374) “Father of Humanism”. Considered first modern writer. Literature was no longer subordinate to religion. Middle Ages = Dark Ages. First to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts. Wrote famous poetry in the Italian vernacular.
Boccaccio (1313-1375) Wrote the "Decameron". Compiled encyclopedia of Greek, Roman mythology.
Decameron Written by Boccaccio. Consisted of 100 earthy tales that comprise a social commentary of 14th century Italy. Aimed to impart wisdom of human character and behavior.
Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444) Coined term “humanism”. One of most important civic humanists. Wrote history of Florence, perhaps the first modern history. Used primary source documents.
Latin Vulgate Authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church.
Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) Member of the Platonic Academy. Wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man" (1486).
"Oration on the Dignity of Man" (1486) Written by Pico della Mirandola. Most famous Renaissance work on the nature of humankind. Humans were created by God and they had free will to be great or fail.
Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) Wrote "The Book of the Courtier" (1528)
"The Book of The Courtier" (1528) Perhaps most important work on Renaissance social etiquette. Specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman. Rejected crude contemporary social habits Described the ideal of a “Renaissance man”.
Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468) Developed movable type.
Printing Press Made the spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe with astonishing speed possible. Facilitated the phenomenal spread of the Reformation.
movable type The system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce all types of documents.
quattrocento Italian, literally "four hundred"; it refers to the 1400s— the fifteenth century, especially in reference to Italian art of this time (the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance).
cinquecento The 1500s; the High Renaissance in Rome; art was becoming more secular
Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) Most notorious of the Renaissance popes; spent huge sums on art patronage. Corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope.
perspective Artistic painting technique that applied 3-D effects on a 2-D surface.
chiaroscuro Use of dark and light colors to create the illusion of depth.
stylized faces Medieval faces in art.
sfumato A technique of blurring or softening sharp outlines that was developed by Leonardo.
Giotto (1266-1336) Considered perhaps the first true Renaissance painter. Known for the use of chiaroscuro.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) "The Father of Perspective". Il Duomo.
Il Duomo (1420-34) Largest dome in Europe at the time of its construction. By Brunelleschi.
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) Sculptor. Sculpted the bronze doors for Florentine baptistery. His two sets of bronze doors (1424 and 1452) are a masterpiece of sculpture.
"Gates of Paradise" Ghiberti's second set of bronze doors.
Donatello (1386-1466) Sculptor. First Renaissance artist to utilize a nude figure in sculpture. His bronze statue of David (1408-09) was the first since antiquity.
David (statue) (1408-09) Donatello's most famous bronze statue. David from "David and Goliath".
Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510) Painter. Painted "Birth of Venus" (1485-86)
"Birth of Venus" (1485-86) Painted by Botticelli. Good example of humanism and contrapposto.
"High Renaissance" Centered in the 16th century in Rome. “Renaissance Popes” provided patronage to the arts. “High Renaissance” art consisted of classical balance, harmony, and restraint.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) The quintessential “Renaissance Man”. Painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist. Painted "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper".
Mona Lisa (1503-1507) Considered one of the great masterpieces in all of art history. Example of sfumato. Painted by da Vinci.
Raphael Santi (1483-1520) Painter. Created numerous “Madonna and Child” paintings. Painted "School of Athens"(1510-11).
"School of Athens" (1510-11) Painted by Raphael. Quintessential example of humanism. Greco-Roman architecture is prominent. Plato & Aristotle are in the center of the painting. Sculptures are painted in contrapposto stance
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) Painted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, sculpted David and Pieta, and designed dome atop St. Peter’s Cathedral in the Vatican.
painted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (1508-1512) Painted by Michelangelo. Commissioned by Pope Julius II.
David (sculpture) (1501-04) Sculpted by Michelangelo. Humanistic marble sculpture—glorifies the human body; contrapposto stance; facial features are individualistic and emotional. Commissioned by the cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence.
Pieta (sculpture) (1499) Sculpted by Michelangelo. Mary holds the limp body of Christ. Commissioned for a French cardinal’s funeral monument.
dome atop St. Peter’s Cathedral Designed by Michelangelo. Largest dome in Europe. In the Vatican.
Titian (1485-1576) Greatest painter of the Venetian school. Use of vivid color and movement.
Mannerism The reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity, and realistic use of color. Mannerism works used unnatural colors while shapes were elongated or exaggerated.
El Greco (1541 -1614) Greek artist that did most of his work in Spain. One of the greatest of the Mannerists. Use of elongated figures and unnatural pigments. Examples of work: Burial of Count Orgaz and Toledo.
Northern Renaissance (late 15th and 16th centuries) Emphasized early church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the church. Writings led to criticism of the church thus leading to the Reformation.
Christian humanism Interested in the development of an ethical way of life, believed classical and Christian cultures should combine.
Erasmus (1466-1536) Most famous and celebrated of all northern humanists. Made new translations of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament. Wrote "In Praise of Folly".
"In Praise of Folly" (1509) Written by Erasmus. Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy. Inspired renewed calls for reform and influenced Martin Luther.
Thomas More (1478-1536) Civic humanist. Lord Chancellor to King Henry VIII in England. Wrote "Utopia".
"Utopia" (1516) Written by Thomas More. Describes a perfect (utopian) society located on an imaginary island.
Francois Rabelais (1494-1553) French humanist. Secular writings portrayed confidence in human nature and reflected Renaissance tastes. Wrote Gargantua (1534) and Pantagruel (1532).
"Gargantua" and "Pantagruel" Folk epics and comic masterpieces that satirized French society. Attacked clerical education and monastic orders. Championed secular learning.
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) Developed the essay form. Best known for his skepticism.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Greatest of the English Renaissance authors. Works reflected the Renaissance ideas of classical Greek and Roman culture, individualism and humanism. Wrote comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) Wrote "Don Quixote".
"Don Quixote" (1605-15) Among the greatest pieces of Spanish literature. Critical of excessive religious idealism and chivalric romance.
Flemish style Heavily influenced by the Italian Renaissance. Very detailed. Oil paints. Emotional. Death.
Jan van Eyck (1339-1441) Most famous and innovative Flemish painter of the 15th century. Oil paintings and wood panel. Incredible detail. Masterpiece: Ghent Altarpiece (1432). "Arnolfini and his Wife" (1434) is perhaps his most famous work.
Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1520-1569) Flemish painter known for his landscape and peasant scenes.
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) German. Foremost northern Renaissance artist. Master of the woodcut. Proportion, perspective, & modeling. "Adam and Eve", "Knight, Death, and Devil", and "Four Apostles".
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) German painter. Noted for portraits and religious paintings. Painted for Erasmus, More, and King Henry VII.
Christine de Pisan (1363-1434) Wrote "The City of Ladies" (1405) and "The Book of Three Virtues" Chronicled accomplishments of great women of history. Renaissance woman’s survival manual. Perhaps Europe’s first feminist. Extremely educated.
Isabella d’Este (1474-1539) “First Lady” of the Renaissance. Set an example for women to break away from their traditional roles as mere ornaments to their husbands. Ruled Mantua. Well educated. Big patron of the arts. Founded a school for young women.
Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1652) The first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes:series of “Judith” paintings.
Created by: jayzsmyagent