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Absolute location A point on the earth's surface expressed by a coordinate system such as latitude and longitude
Relative Location The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility and connectivity affect relative location.
Site The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
Situation The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system
Toponym a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature.
Absolute direction Absolute direction is the direction on a compass in reference to a map.
Relative Direction Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down based on people's perception of places
Absolute Distance The distance that can be measured with a standerd unit of length
Relative Distance A measure of distance that includes absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places.
Scale The relative size or extent of something.
Map a diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc
Cartography The art and science of making maps and the construction of productions, design, compilation, drafting, and reproduction. This includes the constructions of projectionsdesign, compilation, drafting, and reproduction.
Map Scale Refers to the relationship (or ratio) between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the ground.
Map Projection a method for representing part of the surface of the earth or a celestial sphere on a plane surface
Distortion The misinterpretation of an area, shape or feature.
Grid a set of numbered lines printed on a map so that the exact position of any place can be referred to A set of numbered lines equally spaced on a plane to be referred to so that an exact location may be found
Reference Map Shows the location of the geographic areas for which census data are tabulated and disseminated. The maps display the boundaries, names, and unique identifiers of standard geographic areas., as well as major cultural and physical features, such as roads,
Thematic Map A thematic map is a type of map especially designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area. These maps can portray physical, social, political, cultural, economic, sociological, agricultural, or any other aspects of a city,
Cartogram A map in which statistical information, such as population density or gross national income, is reflected by distorting the size of an area, region, or country.
Dot Map A dot map uses a dot to represent the occurrence of some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in a given area.
Choropleth Map A map that uses differences in shading or variation of the same color to represent the distribution of some property, such as population density or annual percipitation.
Isoline Map Map with continuous lines joining points of the same value An isoline map with continuous lines joining points of the same value. Examples would be equal altitude(contour lines), temperature(isotherms), etc.
Mental Map “An image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual’s perception, impression, and knowledge of that space which includes your activity space, where you do your daily activities, and terra incognita, or unknown space” (Blij,
Time zones Literal definition: a range of longitudes where a common standard time is used. Basically:The world is separated into 24 sections to give each section as accurate a time of day as possible There are 24 time zones separated by approximately fifteen degre
Geographic Information System (GIS) A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satell
Remote sensing A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g. satelites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
built/cultural landscape the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
Sequent occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
natural/physical landscapeq an area in which the land and the elements on the land are unaffected by human interaction
environmental determinism The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over the various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism. (Blij, Murphy, Fouberg A-21).
spatial interaction Spatial interaction is a dynamic flow process from one location to another. It is a general concept that may refer to the movement of human beings such as intra urban commuters or intercontinental migrants but may also refer to traffic in goods such as
spatial perspective The way of identifying, explaining, and predicting the human and physical patterns in space and the interconnectedness of various spaces.
distance decay Distance decay describes the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions. The distance decay effect states that the interaction between two locales declines as the distance between them increases. Once the distance is outside of the two locales
friction of distance The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance. As distance increases, people are less likely to be willing to migrate or move to that destination.
time space compression an influence of the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually displayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases Space time compression is the increasing sense of connectivity t
diffusion the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others
hearth The area where an idea or cultural trait originates.
relocation diffusion The actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and who carry it to a new location, where they proceed to spread it.
expansion diffusion When an innovation or idea develops in a hearth and remains strong there while continuing to spread outward.
Hierarchical diffusion A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the places or people. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leap-frogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influ
contagious diffusion the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person-analogous to the communication of a contagious illness
stimulus diffusion diffusion in which one people receives a culture element from another but gives it a new and unique form.
distribution Arrangement of features in space; three main properties: density, concentration, pattern
density Shows the frequency of something occurring across the earths surface (like humans) -Frequency with which something occurs in space
arithmetic density the number of people divided by the area of land (measured in square miles or square kilometers)
Physiological density the total population divided by the area of arable land (land fit for crops)
Dispersion v Concentration people, culture and ideas spread beyond the country in which they originate, are not concentrated in one particular area. Concentration=cultures, ideas and people remain in one place, don't spread and remain endemic to the place in which they originate.
Dispersed/ scattered Not close to each other, spread out; when a population is dispersed the density is low
Clustered/ agglomerated agglomartion is an extended town area consisting of the built up area of a central place and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area. A cluster is a grouping of similar items.
region an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon. The area of earth distinguished by distinctive combination of cultural and physical feature
formal/ uniform regions An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics, generally identified to help explain broad global or national patterns, generally illustrating a general concept rather than a precise mathematical distribution.
functional/nodal region An area characterized by its function.
perceptual/ vernacular region A region that only exists as an idea and not as a physical place.
regionalization an organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed different from other areas.
human geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human populations, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
models a simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify causal relationships
Possibilism The theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions. (How humans adjust to the challenges posed by the physical environment.)
Created by: cassidyy19
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