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nervous tissue A+P

chapter 12 in A+P book. reviews nervous tissue and information.

neurotransmitter chemical released to trigger the next cell
CNS brain and spinal cord
cephalization process in which neurons gather in head
somatic aware of (uses five senses)
autonomic unaware of (controls internal effects of body such as temperature and blood pressure)
motor and sensory branches of PNS
sympathetic fight or flight response
parasympathetic rest and digest response
neuron cells that transmit impulses
neuroglia do not send impulses/ maintain neurons
axon hillock cone-shaped area where axon attaches
synaptic end bulb end of axon terminal where neurotransmitters are released
cell body, dendrite, axon parts of a neuron
dendrite receives information from other neurons
cell body part of neuron that contains nucleus
axon transmitter/ attaches to dendrites
multipolar neuron has multiple extensions off of cell body
glia "glue"
astrocytes star shaped/nourish and maintain environment/ remove neurotransmitter
oligodendrocytes only in CNS/ myelinating cells
Schwann cells only in PNS/ myelinating cells
myelination process in which a nueron is wrapped with a myelin sheath that speeds up transmission
myelin sheath insulates axon
white matter contains myelinated axons
gray matter contains unmyelinated axons/ controls synapses
electrical synapse gap junction
chemical synapse neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft which opens the ligand-gated ion channel.
Ligand-gated ion channel channel that opens when something binds to it.
depolarization causing the membrane potential to become LESS negative/ increase mV
hyperpolarization caues membrane potential to become MORE negative/ decrease mV
repolarizing phase period when potential drops from +30 to -70
-55 mV threshold
action potential rapid reversal in membrane potential
graded potential potential that does NOT reach threshold
exocytosis release of neurotransmitter
re-uptake suck neurotransmitter back into the cell
spatial summation activity from more than one neuron
temporal summation activity in which one neuron sends several signals
Na+ channel ion channel=depolarization/excitaion
K+ channel ion channel= hyperpolarization/inhibition
Cl- ion channel ion channel= hyperpolarization/ inhibition
diverging circuit 1signal branches out into several
converging circuit several signals merge into 1
reverberating circuit direct signal that loops around/ controls memory
resting membrane potential RMP/ difference in voltage across membrane in a cell at rest
voltage-gated ion channel opens and closes based on a change in voltage
mechanically gated ion channel operated mechanically by feeling, soundwaves, and tissue stretching (opened by pressure)
leakage channel gates alternate between open and close and let a whole bunch of stuff in at a time
continuous conduction slow process/ de- and repolarization of adjacent segments
saltatory conduction fast process/ propagation along myelinated axons
Created by: ashley814