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AP Euro Renaissance

Italian Renaissance a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century
Republic of Florence (included Republic of Genoa) Center of the Renaissance during the 14th and 15th centuries
Medici family Rich banking family that dominated at that time
Cosimo de’ Medici allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic
Lorenzo de’ Medici (the Magnificent) significant patron of the arts (son of Cosimo)
Girolamo Savonarola became the unofficial leader of Florence between 1494 and 1498
Machiavelli, The Prince The quintessential political treatise of the 16th century
Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI)had ambitions of uniting Italy under his control
Sack of Rome, 1527 armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who was also king of Spain) symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy
Charles V king of Spain during the time of the Italian Renaissance
humanism Revival of antiquity (Greece and Rome) in philosophy,literature and art,Sought to reconcile pagan writings with Christian thought,Strong belief in individualism and the great potential of human beings
Petrarch the “father of humanism”, Considered the first modern writer
Boccaccio, Decameron his most famous work, Consisted of 100 earthy tales that comprise a social commentary of 14th century Italy
Leonardo Bruni First to use the term “humanism”, Among the most important of the civic humanists Served as a chancellor in Florence
Latin Vulgate the authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
Pico Della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man Perhaps the most famous Renaissance work on the nature of humankind,Humans were created by God and therefore given tremendous potential for greatness, and even union with God if they desired it
Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the Courtier Perhaps most important work on Renaissance social etiquette,Specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman including physical and intellectual abilities and leading an active life
Johann Gutenberg, printing press One of most important inventions in human history
moveable type made possible the spread of humanistic literature to rest of Europe with astonishing speed
quattrocento, 1400 Florence was the leader in Renaissance art especially in the quattrocento
cinquecento, 1500s Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s
Pope Alexander VI most notorious of the Renaissance popes; spent huge sums on art patronage
perspective 3-D effects on a 2-dimensional surface,Medieval works, in contrast, looked flat and two-dimensional
chiaroscuro use of dark and light colors to create the illusion of depth
stylized faces more generic in the works of art, showing emotion
sfumato developed by Leonardo; a technique of blurring or softening sharp outlines
Giotto considered perhaps the first Renaissance painter; use of chiaroscuro
Brunelleschi, Il Duomo atop Santa Maria del Fiore is his masterpiece; it was the largest dome in Europe at the time of its construction
Lorenzo Ghiberti, “gates of paradise” sculptor,His two sets of bronze doors (1424 and 1452) are a masterpiece of sculpture,Michelangelo called his 2nd set of bronze doors the “gates of paradise”
Donatello, David His bronze statue of David (1408-09) was the first since antiquity,First Renaissance artist to utilize a nude figure in sculpture
Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus The painting is a good example of humanism as the subject is Venus, the Roman goddess of love
“High Renaissance” centered in Rome (16th century),The worldly “Renaissance Popes”—Alexander VI, Julius II and Leo X—provided tremendous patronage to the arts
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa The quintessential “Renaissance Man”,Painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist,Considered one of the great masterpieces in all of art history
Raphael, School of Athens a quintessential example of humanism,Greco-Roman architecture is prominent,Plato & Aristotle are in the center of the painting,Sculptures are painted in contrapposto stance
Michelangelo, David; ceiling of Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter’s basilica, Pieta Painting: ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Commissioned by Pope Julius II,David;Humanistic marble sculpture—glorifies the human body;Pieta;Mary holds the limp body of Christ,
Titian Greatest painter of the Venetian school,Use of vivid color and movement, in contrast to more subtle colors and static figures of the Florentine style
Mannerism Reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance,symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color,High Renaissance had taken art to perfection; there was little that could be done to improve it; thus, mannerists rebelled against it
El Greco Greek artist; did most of his greatest work in Spain,Perhaps the greatest of the Mannerists with his use of elongated figures and unnatural pigments
Northern Renaissance late-15th and 16th centuries,
Christian humanism Emphasized early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly Most famous and celebrated of all northern humanists,Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550),Written in Latin; thus is was not intended for mass consumption
Thomas More, Utopia Prime example of a civic humanist; he rose to the highest government position of any humanist,More’s humanistic masterpiece Mixes civic humanism with religious ideals to describe a perfect (utopian) society located on an imaginary island
Francois Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel His secular writings portrayed his confidence in human nature and reflected Renaissance tastes,Folk epics and comic masterpieces that satirized French society
Michel de Montaigne, skepticism, essay form Developed the essay form,The essay became a vehicle for testing new ideas,Doubt that true knowledge could be obtained Believed that the skeptic must be cautious, critical and suspend judgment.
William Shakespeare Elizabethan era,Greatest of the English Renaissance authorship works reflected the Renaissance ideas of classical Greek and Roman culture, individualism and humanism
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote Among the greatest pieces of Spanish literature Critical of excessive religious idealism and chivalric romance
Flemish style the Low Countries produced especially important artists,Heavily influenced by the Italian Renaissance
Jan van Eyck Most famous and innovative Flemish painter of the 15th century,Perfected oil painting Naturalistic wood panel paintings used much religious symbolism.
Peter Brueghel, the Elder Focused on lives of ordinary people and The Battle Between Carnival and Lent, not influenced by the Italian Renaissance
Albrecht Dürer Foremost northern Renaissance artist,Master of the woodcut,First northern artist to master Italian Renaissance techniques of proportion, perspective, & modeling
Hans Holbein the Younger Premier portrait artist of his era: painted Erasmus, More, numerous portraits of King Henry VIII and also his family members
Christine de Pisan A new debate emerged over the proper role of women in society;debate continued for 600 years
Isabella d’Este “First Lady” of the Renaissance,Set an example for women to break away from their traditional roles as mere ornaments to their husbands
Artemesia Gentileschi considered a Baroque painter,Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era
Created by: Jose_Martinez