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test 12/5/08


upper respiratory system nose, pharynx
lower respiratory system layrnx, trachea, broncho, lungs
External nares nostrils
Internal nares internal openings that connect to the throat
Nasal cavity above the mouth inside of internal nose
Nasal septum divide the nasal cavity into left and right
Pharynx throat
Nasopharynx upper portion, pharyngeal tonsils, Eustachian tubes
Oropharynx middle portion, palatine, lingual tonsils
Laryngopharynx lower, connect to the esophagus and trachea
Larynx voice boc c4-6
Thyroid cartilage made upof hyaline cartilage, makes up the anterior wall/layrnx
Epiglottis elastic flap, cover the trachea
Cricoid cartilage hyaline cartilage, attached to the 1st ring of trachea
Arytenoids cartilage sit above the cricoid, attatched to the vocal choards, also have a muscle, pharyngeal muscle, voice production
True vocal chords elastic ligaments, vibrate to produce sound waves, increase pressure increases the volume of the sound
Parietal pleura line the cavity where the lungs are
Visceral pleura cover the lungs themselves
Pleura cavity space in between visceral and parietal pleura
Apex top
Hilus where the bronchi enter the lungs
Fissures separate the lobes
Lobes region of the lungs r-3 l-2
Alveolar sacs is the air sac surrounded by respiratory membrane for gas exchange
Surfactant a lubricant to prevent the lungs from adhering to themselves, devlops at 36 weeks
Quiet inspiration muscles diaphragm, external intercostals
Forced inspiration muscles SCM (sternocleidomastoid), scalenes, pectoralis minor
Quiet expiration muscles passive by elastic recoil
Forced expiration muscles internal intercostals, external obliques, internal obliques, transverse abdominus, rectus abdominus
Tidal volume volume of 1 breath, 600mL
Inspiratory reserve volume additional air inhaled after normal inhalation
Expiratory reserve volume forced exhale volume
Residual volume volume left over after forces exhalation
Total lung capacity total volume can hold, about 6L
Gas exchange follows gas laws
Partial pressure P(total)= P1+P2+P3
Boyles law P = 1/volume
Carbon dioxide increases in thes gas cause oxygen to be releases from Hb more rapidly
Acidity decrease in pH causes oxygen to be released more readily
Temerature increases in temperature causes oxygen to be released more rapidly
Carbon monoxide binds to Hb 200x more strongly than oxygen
Carbon dioxide transport Hb + carbon dioxide <- -> Hb carbon dioxide
Dissolved carbon dioxide traveks in plasma to lungs and is exhaled
Amino acids can travel on amino acids other than Hb
Bicaronate can travel as bicarbonate ion to lungs
Pain visceral pain decreases rate, sudden/severe pain leads to brief apnea, prolonged somatic pain increases rate
Inflation reflex stretch receptors overstrecth -> inhibit inflammation
Renal capsule covers the outside of the kidney, fibrous, tough
Renal cortex outer portion of the kidney
Renal medulla inner portion of the kidney
Renal pyramids pyramid shaped structure in kidney contains nephrons
Renal columns space between the renal pyramids
Renal pelvis center area of the kidney where nephrons drain
Major calyces drain the minor calyces
Minor calyces drain the renal pyramids and collecting ducts
Glomerulus filters the blood going into the nephron, initial filtering makes glomerular filtrate
Peritubular capillaries surround the loop of Henle in the nephron for the tubular reabsorption
Nephrons main functional unit of the kidney
renal corpuscle the glomerulus and capsule around it
Renal tubule carries the glomerular filtrate after it leaves the glomerulus tube changes names along the way
Glomerular filtrate the filtered plasma after it has passed through the glomerulus
Bowman's capsule structure around the glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule the closest region to the glomerulus where the renal tube begins to take a cuvy route
Loop of Henle portion of the renal tubule that extends down into the renal pyramid, is surrounded by the peritubular capillaries
Distal convoluted tubule the portion of the renal tubule furthest from the glomerulues takes a curvy route
Collecting duct drains the filtered fluid from the distal convoluted tubule which is now urine, and carries it down to the calyces in renal pelvis
Urine fluid formed after passing through nephron, pale straw colored
Ureters drain kidney into urinary bladder
Urinary bladder store urine for more convenient time to excrete it when lying supine full bladder presses on urethra to prevent back flow
External urethral orifice opening from the urethra to ext. body
Internal urethral orifice opening from the bladder to urethra
Internal urethral sphincter involuntary control
External urethral sphincter voluntary control
Micturition process of urination
Created by: vanessamay21