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Chapter 3 Notes

What are differentiated cells? Cells with specialized characteristics
What are the three major parts of a cell? nucleus) innermost part that contains DNA located in nuclear envelope. cytoplasm) has cytoplasmic organelles in its cytosol. cell membrane) contains the cytoplasm
Where is the cell membrane? the outermost part of the cell
What is the cell membrane's purpose? controls many metabolic reactions and harbors molecules that enable the cell to communicate and interact. Controls what enters and exits the cell.
What is a membrane that allows some substances to enter but not others? a selectively permeable membrane
How does the cell membrane allow the cell to send and receive messages signal tranduction
What is the cell membrane made of? lipids and proteins with some carbs
What is the framework of the membrane structure? double layer of phospholipid molecules that self-assemble so that their water soluble heads form the surfaces of the membrane and their watter insoluble tails form the interior of the membrane
What does the interior of the membrane consist of? fatty acid portions
How are membrane proteins classified? shape, location in bilayer, and function
What is an integral protein? a protein that spans the membrane
What is a peripheral protein? a protein that projects from outer surface of membrane
What is both a integral and peripheral protein? a protein that transverses membrane and extends from outer surface
What is a transmembrane protein? a protein that extends outside and dips into the cytoplasm
What is a receptor? many times a transmembrane protein that receive and transmit messages into a cell
What are cellular adhesion molecules? (CAMs) peripheral proteins that enable certain cells to touch or bond
What else is in the cytoplasm other than organelles? inclusions
What is an inclusion? stored nutrients and are usually temporarily in the cell
What is the cytoskeleton? protein rods and tubules that from a supportive framework
Ribosome particle composed of protein and RNA///synthesizes proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum- E.R. membranous sacs, canals, vesicles///transports materials within cell, provides attachment for ribosomes, and synthesizes lipids
Vescicles membranous sacs///contains substances that recently entered the cell, store and transport newly synthesized molecules
Golgi Apparatus flattened, membranous sacs///packages and modifies protein molecules for transport and secretion
Mitochondria membranous sacs with inner portions///release energy from food and convert it into usable form
Lysosomes membranous sacs///contain enzymes capable of ingesting worn cell parts or substances that enter cells
Peroxisomes membranous sacs///contain peroxidases, important in the breakdown of many organic molecules
Centrosome nonmembranous structure with 2 rodlike centrioles///helps distribute chromosomes to new cells in cell division; initiates formation of cilia
Cilia motile projections attached to basal bodies beneath the cell membrane///propel fluids over cellular surface
Flagellum motile projections attached to basal bodies benath the cell membrane///enables sperm cells to move
Microfilaments and Microtubules thin rods and tubules///support cytoplasm, help move substances and organelles within the cytoplasm
Nuclear Envelope selectively permeable double membrane that separates the nuclear contents from the cytoplasm///maintains integrity of the nucleus, controls passage of materials, between the nucleus and cytoplasm
Nucleolus dense, nonmembranous body composed of protein and RNA molecules///site of ribosome formation
Chromatin fibers composed of protein and DNA molecules///carries information for synthesizing proteins
Created by: wmisaacharris