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095

Urinary System -Q – Diagnostic Tests & Procedure & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
cystoscopy examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
kidney biopsy (Bx) removal of kidney tissue for pathologic examination
intravenous pyelogram (IVP) x-ray image of the urinary tract obtained after an iodine contrast medium has been injected into the bloodstream; the contrast passes through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma, etc.
kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB) (Fig. 13-8) abdominal x-ray image of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; typically used as a scout film before obtaining an intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
scout film plain-film x-ray image obtained to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging (e.g., a KUB before an IVP)
renal angiogram x-ray image of the renal artery obtained after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
retrograde pyelogram (RP) x-ray image of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis obtained after contrast medium has been injected up to the kidney by way of a small catheter passed through a cystoscope; used to detect the presence of stones, obstruction, etc.
voiding cystourethrogram (VCU or VCUG) x-ray image of the bladder and urethra obtained during urination (voiding = urinating)
abdominal sonogram abdominal ultrasound image of the urinary tract, including the kidney and bladder
urinalysis (UA) physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine
specific gravity (SpGr) measure of the concentration or dilution of urine
pH measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine
glucose chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; most often used to screen for diabetes (glucose = sugar)
albumin (alb) chemical test used to detect the presence of albumin in the urine
ketones chemical test used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates that fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs during starvation or an uncontrolled diabetic state
urine occult blood chemical test for the presence of hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidneys (occult = hidden)
bilirubin chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; seen in gallbladder and liver disease
urobilinogen chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine; increased amounts are seen in gallbladder and liver disease
nitrite chemical test to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine
microscopic findings (see Figs. 13-3 and 13-4) microscopic identification of abnormal constituents in the urine (e.g., red blood cells, white blood cells, and casts); reported per high- or low-power field (hpf or lpf, respectively)
urine culture and sensitivity (C&S) isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identified, as are drugs to which they are sensitive
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the inability of one or both kidneys to excrete urea
creatinine, serum test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood; useful in assessing kidney function
creatinine, urine test to determine the level of creatinine in the urine
creatinine clearance testing measurements of the level of creatinine in the blood and in a 24-hour urine specimen to determine the rate at which creatinine is “cleared” from the blood by the kidneys
Created by: MT student1