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Yellow/Green Sputum Bacterial
White/clear Viral
Red/rust CA, pneumonia, TB
Red currant jelly Klebsiella pneumonia
pink, frothy Pulmonary edema
Hemoptysis bloody sputum; could be ca, tb, bronchitis, PE, etc
Muscles of inspiration diaphragm, external intercostals
muscles of expiration diaphragm, internal intercostals
accessory muscles of respiration Sternocleidomastoid scalens trapezius
Pain fibers in lungs visceral pleura
Tracheobronchial tree division of the mainstem bronchi at around T4
Bronchus more prone to foreign body aspiration Right mainstem; it is wider, shorter and straighter
Respiration regulation Primarily by CO2 levels (both rate and depth)
Chest pain not cardiac when: (5) constant ache lasting all day pain stays in one location made worse with pressure on the precordium very short, sharp pain lasting 1-2 seconds Located in the shoulders or between the scapula in the back
Pack years Number of years smoking X number of packs/day
Pectus excavatum hollowed chest
Pectus Carinatum Pigeon chest (puffed out)
Adult respiratory rate 12-20
Tachypnea respirations over 20
bradypnea respirations under 12
Retractions inward deviation of musculature and skin to overcome obstruction when intrapleural pressure becomes increasingly negative
Paradoxical breathing thorax draws inward during inspiration thorax moves outward on expiration
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing with shortness of breath
hypernea hyperventilation (abnormally deep resipirations)
hyponea abnormally shallow respirations
orthopnea shortness of breath when lying down
platypnea SOB when sitting upright
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dypsnea sudden SOB after a period of sleep. PND is usually helped by sitting up. (ask how many pillows)
Kussmaul deep/rapid associated with DKA
Cheyne-Stokes Regular periodic patter of breathign with intervals of apnea followed by crescendo/decrescendo sequences
biot irregular respirations varrying in depth with intervals of apnea no repetitive pattern
ataxic more severe form of biot
cyanosis bluish coloration of the skin often seen around lips and nails caused by inadequate oxygenation of tissue
Crackles aka rales brief, intermittent and nonmusical. heard mostly on inspiration
wheeze continuous, high-pitched, musical loudest in inspiration
rhonchi deeper, rumbling, and more pronounced during expiration than crackles
friction rub outside respiratory tree, dry cracky, grating, low pitched. both inspiration and expiration
Apnea absence of spontaneous respiration
crepitus crackly or crinkly sensation air in subcutaneous tissue
Bronchophony vocal resonance test greater clarity and increased loudness of spoken words (whisper heard clearly)
Egophony intensity of spoken voice increased with nasal quality (e's -> a's)
Thorax of infants and small children thinner, rounder chest allows for bronchovesicular breath sounds to be heard thru the chest
Diaphragmatic Excursion measure hwo much the diaphragm moves between inspiration and expiration usually between 3-6 cm
Breathing in Pregnancy ventilation is increased by breathing more deeply, NOT more frequently
Thorax in older adults dorsal curve of spine more emphasized and tire more quickly
Pleural effusion excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity
Created by: tjamrose
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