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The Eye -Q – Diagnostic Terms & A – Meaning

refractive errors defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina
astigmatism distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina (stigma = point)
hyperopia (Fig. 10-3, B) farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the retina
myopia (Fig. 10-3, C) nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays are focused on a point in front of the retina
presbyopia impaired vision caused by old age or loss of accommodation
accommodation ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
amblyopia decreased vision in early life because of a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors (when one eye is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other), or trauma; usually occurs in one eye; also known as laz
aphakia absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid
blepharochalasis baggy eyelid; overabundance and loss of skin elasticity on the upper eyelid causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open (chalasis = a slackening)
blepharoptosis drooping of the eyelid; usually caused by paralysis
chalazion chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid (chalaza = hailstone)
cataract opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
conjunctivitis pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva
dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis inflammation of the tear sac
diabetic retinopathy (Fig. 10-6, C; see Fig. 10-13, C) disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization) leading to scarring and loss of vision
ectropion outward turning of the rim of the eyelid (tropo = turning)
entropion ) inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
epiphora abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct (epi = upon; phero = to bear)
glaucoma group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid (hordeum = barley)
iritis inflammation of the iris
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
macular degeneration breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
pseudophakia an eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant (pseudo = false)
pterygium fibrous, wing-shaped growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea, developing most commonly from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light
retinal detachment separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
retinitis inflammation of the retina
strabismus a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance (strabismus = a squinting; hetero = other)
esotropia right or left eye deviates inward, toward nose (eso = inward; tropo = turning)
exotropia right or left eye deviates outward, away from nose (exo = out; tropo = turning)
scleritis inflammation of the sclera
trichiasis misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea
Created by: MT student1