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phylum chordata

chapter 2+3

general characteristics of chordates multicellular,triploblastic,deuterostomes,coelom,complete gut tube,bilateral symmetry
distinguishing characteristics notochord,thyroid gland(endostyle).dorsal hollow nerve cord,post anal tail,pharynx with silts.
notochord supportive rod, mesoderm,vacuoles,hydrostatic skeleton,patterning includes DHNC
Dorsal hollow nerve cord(DHNC) induced to form by notochord signals(sonic hedgehog protein)
pharynx with slits filter feeding(primitive),modified later as jaws,gills, aorta
post anal tail balance, communication
enostyle thyroid- regulating metabolism
phylum Hemichordata Acorn worm.pharynx with slits,DHNC(only in collar),stomochord,no post anal tail.
stomochord comes out from mouth. different characteristics than notochord
subphylum cephalochordata (head chord).Lancelets,amphioxous,branchiostoma.all chordate characteristics in vertebrae.some cephalization.asymmetry in myomeres.
subphylum urochordata tunicates or sea squirts.pharyngeal slits.notochord in tail of larvae,filter feeders,tunic of cellulose.water flow- incurrent siphon,pharynx with slits,artium,excurrent siphon.
subphylum vertebrata (craniata)appear about 500 mya.about 50,000 species(half are fish).distinguishing characteristics-cranium, vertebrae
vertebrate characteristics true brain,several divisions.well developed eyes,organs of chemical perception.sense organs condenced into head region=faster reaction.extreme cephilization,thyroid,pituitary,solid liver,hepatic portal blood system,gall bladder,large body size
agnatha vs. gnathostomes w/o jaw vs. w/jaw
"fish" vs. tetrapods fins or limbs
amniotes vs. anaminotes extra-embryotic membrane or not
class agnatha jawless fish(lamprey,hagfish). first vertebrate group.most primitive body plan.
subclass myxinoidea jaw bone or scales.sucking mouth,scavengers, mucous glands
subclass petromyzontida jawbone or scales.rasping tongue,many are parasites
subclass "ostracodermi" first vertebrates,500 mya.first bone.small filter jaw
class placodermi about 400 mya.all extinct.armored fish,first jaw.jaw from 1st pharyngeal arch.paired appendages.gas bladder-boyancy
class chrondrichthyes sharks,rays,chimaeras.400 mya, no bone in skeleton; cartilage fish.evolutionary dead end
class osteichthyes 400 mya.over 25,000 species;most diverse vertebrate.bone in skull,vertrbrae,fins,scales.**bony scales
subclass actinopterygii *ray finned fish.*fin muscle inside body wall.teleosti(superorder)make up 95%of all living fish.
subclass sarcopterygii *lobe-finned fish.*fin muscles are in the fin.*point of evolution from fish to tetrapods.three major groups:Rhipidistians(extinct),coelacanth, lungfish(Dipnoi).
Rhipidistians Sarcopterygian fish gave rise to fist amphibians.Tiktaalik intermediate fish fossil.
Rhipidistian features Skull like amphibian,teeth like amphibian,bones of fin similar to tetrapods, choanae-interna nostrils(air breathers)
Coelacanth "living Fossil",lobed finned fish,discovered in 1938 by M.Courtenay-Latimer.Latimeria the coast of Africa
Lung fish Dipnoi,three genera.Gondwana Distribution.Burrow and breathe air when transient pools dry up.
Tetrapods Terrestrial Vertebrates
What was wrong with fish? fussiform=streamlined.Vertebral Column uniform.
what do terrestrial organisms need? lungs,skin resistant to abrasion,dessication.sense organs in air.vertebral regions specialized.girdles anchored to skeleton.strong limbs.protected embryos
who started the terrestrial trends? amphibians.but they didn't perfect them
class amphibia(the first) 350 mya.labrinthodonts(maze tooth).like Rhipidistian fish
class amphibia characteristics fleshy,moveable tongue,middle ear bone=columella(homologous to stapes).glands to moisten eye and moveable eyelids.limbs.lungs(can be argued either way)
lissamphibians 200 mya.frogs,salamanders,caecilians.moist,glandular skin w/o scales(no keratin,no dermal bone)
class reptilia 300 mya.terrestrial,fist amniotic egg,first epidermal scale.
specialized characteristics of reptiles kertinized,dessiciation-resistant skin.epidermal scales.claws.solid ribs.extra embryonic membranes to surround young.
amniotic egg yolk(used as food),allantois(waste vacuoule),chorion(gas exchange),shell(protection),amnion(cushion).
parareptilia carapace,plastron,turtles,tortoises.
cotylosauria stem reptile
eureptilia,Lepidosauromorpha ichthyosaurs(marine,extinct),pleasiosaurs(matine,extint),snakes,lizards.*all have diapsid skull(2openings)
eureptilia,Archosauromorpha bipedal,long neck,strong pelvis.gave rise to- Pterpsaurs(flying reptiles),crocodiles,birds,Dinosaurs(ornothischians,saurischians)
Thecodonts stem archosaur."deep socket tooth"
Dinosaurs and birds fused clavicles,sternum,scapula long and thin,swivel wrist,loss finger digits,pubis backward,3forward pointing toes
Class aves birds.150 mya.feathers from epidermal scales (surface area,yet light weight,insulation for endothermey).flight(in most).1861 Archaeopteryx fossil found both features and teeth.great diversity in modern birds
subclass Synapsida "skull with opening"."mammal like reptiles".moderate in size,active carnivore,specialized teeth,skull with 1 temporal small group gave rise to mammals.ex:pelycosaurs,Therapsids
Class Mammalia 200,mammary glands,3 middle ear bone in lower jaw.
subclass prototheria monotremes,egg layers.ex:duck bill platypus,echidna.
subclass theria metatheria and eutheria
metatheria marsupials=pouched mammals
eutheria placentals=uterus with placenta
Created by: ejohnson17



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