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066

Endocrine System - Q – Diagnostic Terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
Cushing syndrome a collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone; may be due to excessive production by the adrenal gland (often because of a tumor), or, more commonly, occurs as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid)
adrenal virilism excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia; evidenced by amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice (virilis = masculine)
Pancreas 0
diabetes mellitus (DM) metabolic disorder caused by the absence or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria (diabetes = passing through; mellitus = sugar)
type 1 diabetes mellitus diabetes in which no beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes mellitus diabetes in which either the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) occurs; the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
hyperinsulinism a condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
Parathyroid Glands 0
hyperparathyroidism hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
hypoparathyroidism hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
acromegaly disease characterized by enlarged features, especially of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
ak-rō-meg′ă-lē 0
pituitary dwarfism (Fig. 9-5) a condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate, stature (not affecting intelligence); often treated during childhood with growth hormone; other forms of dwarfism are most often caused by gen
pi-tū′i-tār-ē dwōrf′izm 0
pituitary gigantism a condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation (goiter = throat)
hyperthyroidism a condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by nervousness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball (exophthalmos), goiter, etc.; see Comparison of Symptoms in table on page 457
Graves disease the most common form of hyperthyroidism; caused by an autoimmune defect that creates antibodies that stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones; exophthalmos is a featured characteristic
hypothyroidism a condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and, often, obesity; see Comparison of Symptoms in table on page 457
myxedema advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin (myx = mucus)
cretinism condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
Created by: MT student1