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056

Nervous System & Psychiatry - Q – Diagnostic Terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
agnosia any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
astereognosis inability to judge the form of an object by touch (e.g., a coin from a key)
atopognosis inability to locate a sensation properly, such as an inability to locate a point touched on the body
Alzheimer disease disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms and legs, to the muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing, to total paralysis and death;
cerebral palsy (CP) condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination (palsy =)
cerebrovascular disease disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
cerebral arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain (ather/o = fatty [lipid] paste)
cerebral aneurysm dilation of a blood vessel in the brain (aneurysm = dilation or widening)
cerebral thrombosis presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
cerebral embolism obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus (ischemic stroke) or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke)
transient ischemic attack (TIA) brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain, usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit (impairment); often precedes a CVA
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
epilepsy disorder affecting the central nervous system; characterized by recurrent seizures
tonic-clonic seizure stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
absence seizure seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement; previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
partial seizure seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
glioma tumor of glial cells graded according to degree of malignancy
herniated disk or disc protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
herpes zoster viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles
Huntington chorea hereditary disease of the central nervous system characterized by bizarre, involuntary body movements and progressive dementia (choros = dance)
hydrocephalus abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
meningioma benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (the meninges)
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
migraine headache paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
multiple sclerosis (MS) disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
myasthenia gravis autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
myelitis inflammation of the spinal cord
narcolepsy sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
neural tube defects congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube, the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
anencephaly defect in closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube that results in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull; the most drastic neural tube defect usually results in a stillbirth
spina bifida defect in development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges (meningocele) or of the meninges and spinal cord (meningomyelocele); considered to be the most common neural tube defe
Parkinson disease condition of slowly progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (
plegia paralysis
hemiplegia paralysis on one side of the body
paraplegia paralysis from the waist down
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis (polio = gray)
polyneuritis inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as lack of thiamine
sleep apnea periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
Created by: MT student1