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049

Respiratory System - Q – Diagnostic terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
asthma panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of the mucous membrane; characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele = imperfect; -ectasis = expansion or dilation)
bronchiectasis abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
bronchospasm constriction of bronchi caused by spasm (involuntary contraction) of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan = to inflate)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
cystic fibrosis inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous (sticky) mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infecti
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) inflammation of the upper airways with swelling; creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct “seal bark” cough
laryngospasm spasm of the laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
nasal polyposis presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity
empyema accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax blood in the pleural cavity
pleuritis inflammation of the pleura
pneumoconiosis chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts, such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis) (conio = dust)
pneumonia inflammation in the lung resulting from infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites or from aspiration of chemicals
Pneumocystis pneumonia pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection in those who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumohemothorax air and blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonitis inflammation of the lung, often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts
pulmonary embolism (PE) occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs; characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often resulting in snoring
tonsillitis acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infection (URI) infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
Created by: MT student1