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Blood & Lymphatic System - Q – Diagnostic tests & Procedure & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
phlebotomy incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
blood chemistry test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts of its chemical constituents (e.g., glucose and cholesterol)
blood chemistry panels specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions (e.g., metabolic panel, lipid panel, and arthritis panel)
basic metabolic panel (BMP) battery of tests used as a general screen for disease; includes tests for calcium, carbon dioxide (CO2), chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) tests performed in addition to the basic panel for expanded screening: albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
kom-prē-hen′siv met-ă-bol′ik păn′l 0
blood culture test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed, and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
CD4 cell count a measure of the number of CD4 cells (a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood; used in monitoring the course of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS; the normal adult range is 600–1500 cells in a given volume of blood
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle through a volume of plasma
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
thromboplastin substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
prothrombin time (PT) test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
prothrombin protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
complete blood count (CBC) a common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes and typically includes the component tests that follow; test results are usually reported along with normal values so that the clinician can interpret the re
white blood count (WBC) a count of the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
red blood count (RBC) a count of the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
hemoglobin (HGB or Hgb) a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
hematocrit (HCT or Hct) a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
blood indices calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia (Note: in the entries below, the term corpuscular pertains to a blood cell)
mean corpuscular (cell) volume (MCV) calculation of the volume (size) of individual red blood cells using HCT and RBC results: MCV = HCT/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin (MCH) calculation of the content (weight) of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: MCH = HGB/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC = HGB/HCT
differential count determination of the number of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
red cell morphology as part of identifying and counting the white blood cells, the condition, size, and shape of red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted (e.g., anisocytosis, poikilocytosis)
platelet count (PLT) calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood; the normal adult range is 150,000–450,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
bone marrow aspiration needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
bone marrow biopsy pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
lymphangiogram an x-ray image of a lymph node or vessel obtained after injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT) full body x-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
positron-emission tomography (PET) scanning technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of anatomy and metabolic function within the body; useful in determining the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy; commonly used in evalu
Created by: MT student1