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042

Blood & Lymphatic System - Q – Diagnostic terms & A – Meaning

QuestionAnswer
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
anemia a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues
aplastic anemia a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
iron deficiency anemia a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin and is characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
pernicious anemia (see Fig. 6-5) a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
autoimmune disease any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function; rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples of autoimmune diseases (auto =
erythroblastosis fetalis a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
Rh factor presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells, which causes a reaction between Rh-positive blood and Rh-negative blood
Rh positive presence of antigens
Rh negative absence of antigens
hemochromatosis hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
hemophilia a group of hereditary bleeding disorders caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
leukemia chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
myelodysplasia disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells (cells that give rise to different types of blood cells); usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
lymphoma any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
metastasis process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ; the plural form, metastases, indicates spreading to two or more distant sites
mononucleosis condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
polycythemia increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
septicemia systemic disease caused by infection with microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
Created by: MT student1