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AP Euro Reformation

TermDefinition
Simony sale of church offices
Pluralism an official holding of more than one office at a time
Nepotism favoring family members in the appointment of church offices
abstenteenism an official not participating in benefices but receiving payment and privileges
sale of indulgences people paying money to the Church to absolve their sins or sins of their loved ones
clerical ignorance priests that were illiterate
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly criticized the corruption of the church and the hipocracy of the clergy
Martin Luther Augustinian monk; taught at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony
Johann Tetzel authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences
95 Theses a document written by Luther, challenging the teachings of the Catholic Church
Johann Eck one of the great Catholic theologians
“priesthood of all believers” The church consisted of this, Christians were not subject to the Pope's interpretation of the Bible. People believed that all you need to live a Christian live was only the Bible
Diet of Worms A meeting called upon by King Charles V which consisted of the actions that Luther did with the 95 Theses. King Charles then declared Luther a heretic and Luther went into hiing
Charles V sought to stop Protestantism and preserve the hegemony of Catholicism
German Peasants War, Twelve Articles peasants demanded end of serfdom and tithes, and other practices of feudalism that oppressed the peasantry Many of these peasants were inspired by Luther
League of Schmalkalden Formed by newly Protestant Princes to defend themselves against Charles's V drive to recatholisize Germany
Simony sale of church offices
Pluralism an official holding of more than one office at a time
Nepotism favoring family members in the appointment of church offices
abstenteenism an official not participating in benefices but receiving payment and privileges
sale of indulgences people paying money to the Church to absolve their sins or sins of their loved ones
clerical ignorance priests that were illiterate
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly criticized the corruption of the church and the hipocracy of the clergy
Martin Luther Augustinian monk; taught at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony
Johann Tetzel authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences
95 Theses a document written by Luther, challenging the teachings of the Catholic Church
Johann Eck one of the great Catholic theologians
“priesthood of all believers” The church consisted of this, Christians were not subject to the Pope's interpretation of the Bible. People believed that all you need to live a Christian live was only the Bible
Diet of Worms A meeting called upon by King Charles V which consisted of the actions that Luther did with the 95 Theses. King Charles then declared Luther a heretic and Luther went into hiing
Charles V sought to stop Protestantism and preserve the hegemony of Catholicism
German Peasants War, Twelve Articles peasants demanded end of serfdom and tithes, and other practices of feudalism that oppressed the peasantry Many of these peasants were inspired by Luther
League of Schmalkalden Formed by the newly Protestant princes to defend themselves from Charles V drive to recatholosize Germany
Hapsburg-Valois Wars five wars between 1521 and 1555 between France and the Hapsburg over Italy
Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism
Anabaptists formed in 1525 in Zurich, Switzerland Voluntary association of believers with no connection or allegiance to any state
Ulrich Zwingli, Zurich Student of humanism who preached from Erasmus’ edition of the New Greek Testament
John Calvin Frenchman; studied to be a priest and later trained as a lawyer.Influenced by humanism, especially Erasmus
predestination Since God is all-knowing, He already knows who is going to Heaven and who is destined for Hell
Geneva Geneva became the new center of the Reformation in Europe.Geneva became home to Protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries withCalvinist ideas
Protestant work ethic hard work and accompanying financial success as a sign that God was pleased
John Knox John Knox established Presbyterianism in 1560 which became the dominate religion in Scotland
Presbyterianism a new religion in 1560 which was the dominant religion in Scotland
Huguenots French Calvinists;brutally suppressed in France
Puritans Pressured Queen Elizabeth I for more reforms but were kept at bay. Later established colonies in America in a region that came to be known as New England: e.g. Massachusetts, Connecticut
English Reformation Early English reformers
Henry VIII 2nd of the Tudor monarchs, Had earlier been a conservative Catholic and was critical of Lutheranism and reform
Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII wife
Anne Boleyn A mistress of Henry VIII
Church of England (Anglican Church) Henry VIII broke away from Catholicism, and made the Anglican Church
Act of Supremacy made the king officially the head of the Church
Edward VI Ten-years-old when he became king. Those who governed on his behalf were strongly Protestant
Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary” tried to reimpose Catholicism
Elizabeth I the “Virgin Queen”, Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Catholics saw her as an “illegitimate” child and thus rejected her legitimacy regarding the throne, She held strongly Protestant views
politique she was a practical politician who carefully navigated a middle ground between Anglicanism and Protestantism
Elizabethan Settlement Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
Thirty-Nine Articles defined the creed of Anglican Church
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots wanted Queen Elizabeth dead so she can take the throne
Ursuline order of Nuns founded in the 1530s to provide education and religious training
Catholic (Counter) Reformation The Catholic Reformation was both a response to the gains of Protestantism and the response to critics within the church that abuses needed to be reformed
Pope Paul III Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism
Council of Trent (3 sessions 1545-1563)established Catholic dogma for the next four centuries
Index of Prohibited Books Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Church (e.g. Erasmus) were banned from Catholic countries
Jesuits (Society of Jesus) founded in 1540, Jesuits were organized in military fashion, 3 goals:  reform the church through education  spread the Gospel to pagan peoples  fight Protestantism
Ignatius Loyola Loyola’s guidebook that was used to train Jesuits, 3 goals:  reform the church through education  spread the Gospel to pagan peoples  fight Protestantism
Baroque Art part of the Catholic Reformation
Bernini personified baroque architecture and sculpture
Colonnade in piazza in front of St. Peter’s Basilica the incredible canopy over the high altar of St. Peter’s Cathedral, constructed by Bernini
Caravaggio, tenebris Roman painter,Perhaps the first important painter of the Baroque era,Depicted highly emotional scenes,Used sharp contrasts of light and dark to create drama, Criticized by some for using ordinary people as models for his depictions of Biblical scenes
Created by: Jose_Martinez