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AP1-Chapter 3

notes part 1

The 4 parts of the cell theory 1. building blocks of all plants and animals 2. all cells come from division of pervious cells 3. smallest unit that preforms vital functions 4. each cell maintains homeostasis on a cellular level
what is cytology? study of cells and their functions
what are the two classes of cells? somatic cells and sex cells
what are somatic cells? (soma=body) all cells except gametes
what are sex cells? egg (oocytes) and sperm; reproductive cells
what are the 4 functions of the cell membrane? -physical isolation -regulates exchange with environment -monitors environment -structural support
what are the 3 things contained within the cell membrane? lipids, carbs, and functional proteins
what are the two things that make up the cell membrane? hydrophilic heads hydrophobic tails
how much of the membrane does the phospholipid bilayer make up? 42%
how much of the membrane does the membrane proteins make up? 55%
what are the two types of membrane proteins? integral proteins and peripheral proteins
what are integral proteins? parts of the cell membrane that CAN NOT be removed without damaging or destroying the structure
what are peripheral proteins? parts of the cell membrane that are bound to the inside or outside and CAN easily be removed
what are the 6 functions of membrane proteins? -anchoring (stabilizers) -recognition (identifiers) -enzymes (catalyze reactions) -receptor proteins (ligands) -carrier proteins (transports through membranes) -channels (regulates water through mem.)
how much of the membrane does membrane carbohydrates take up? 3%
what are membrane carbohydrates made of? glycoproteins and glycolipids and proteoglycans
what forms the sticky sugar coat of the membrane? glycocalyx
what are the four functions of membrane carbs? -lubrications/protection -anchoring/locomotion -specify on binding (receptors) -recognition (immune system)
what is cytoplasm? material that fills the cell between the membrane and nucleus
what is cytosol? fluid
what are organelles? structures that preform specific activites within the cell
what is the meaning of the word organelle?" "little organ"
what are the two types of organelles? nonmembranous and membranous
what is a nonmembranous organelle? it has no membrane and comes into contact with cytosol directly
what is a membranous organelle? bound by a plasma membrane and does not come into contact with cytosol
what are the six nonmembranous organelles? -cytoskeleton -microvilli -centrioles -ribosomes -proteasomes
what is the function of the cytoskeleton? structural support
what are microfilaments? thin- actin
what do microfilaments do? extra support and interact with proteins; muscle movement
what are intermediate filaments? collagen -strengthen cell and stabilize organelles and position of the cell
what happens when thick filaments bind with microfilaments? myosin forms for muscle movements
what are microtubules? large hollow tubes of tubulin protein that attach to the centrosome and strengthen organelles; move things within cells (kinesin and dynein)and form the spindle apparatus
what do microvilli do? increase surface area for absorption and attach to the cytoskeleton
what do centrioles do? form spindle apparatus during cell division
what is a centrosome? the cytoplasm around centrioles
what do cilia do? move fluid across the cell membrane
what do ribosomes do? make protein
what are the types of ribosomes? free and fixed
what are free ribosomes? freely moving in the cytoplasm
what are fixed ribosomes? stuck to rough ER
what do proteasomes? they break down protein; break down damaged things within cell
what are the 5 membranous organelles? -ER -Golgi apparatus -lysosomes -peroxisomes -mitochondria
ER network within the cytoplasm
what are the two types of ER? smooth and rough
what does the rough ER do? make proteins
what does smooth ER do? make lipids and carbs
what are cisternae? storage chambers within membranes
what are the functions of the ER? make proteins, lipids and carbs. storage, transports, and detoxifications of drugs or toxins
what are the function of the SER? (smooth) no ribosomes attached; makes lipids and carbs and steroid hormones, glycerides and glycogen
what are the function of the ER? (rough) covered in ribosomes; protein and glyocgen synthesis, folds polypeptides into proteins and transport vesicles
where do particles enter in the Golgi body? forming face
where do they exit? maturing face
what are the three types of vesicles in the Golgi body? secretory, membrane, lysosomes
what do secretory vesicles do? modify and package products for exocytosis
what do membrane renewal vesicles do? add or remove membrane components
what do lysosomes do? carry enzymes to cytosol
what do transport vesicles do? carry materials to and from the g.a.
what is exocytosis? ejection secretory products of wastes
what is a lysosome? powerful enzyme that contains vesicles
what are the two structures of lysosomes? primary and secondary
what is a primary lysosome? formed by g.a. and inactivates enzymes
what is a secondary lysosome? one that is fused with an organelle; digestive enzymes activated and toxic chemicals isolated
what are the functions of lysosomes? clean up the inside of a cell
what four things do lysosomes do to "clean up"? -break down large molecules -attack bacteria -recycle damaged organelles -eject waste
what is autolysis? self destruction of damaged cells
what are peroxisomes? enzyme containing vesicles
what is membrane flow? continuous exchange of membrane parts by vesicles(all except mito.)
what are the three parts of the structure of the mitochondria? smooth outer membrane, inner membrane (folds-cristae), and matrix(fluid)
what do mitochondria do? takes chemical energy from food in the form of glucose and make ATP(ENERGY)
what occurs during aerobic cellular respiration? mito. use oxygen to break down food and make ATP
what is glycolysis? glucose to pyruvic acid (in cytosol)
what is the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)? generate carbon dioxide and ATP
primary function of the nucleus? cell's control center
what are the structures within the nucleus? -the nucleus -nuclear envelope -perinuclear space -nuclear pores
what is DNA? information to build and run organisms
what is nucleoplasm? fluid containing ions, enzymes, nucleotide, and some RNA
what is nuclear matrix? support filaments
nucleoli related to protein production -made of histones, rna, enzymes, and nucleotides
nucleosomes DNA coiled around histones
chromatin loosely coiled DNA (when cell is not dividing)
chromosomes tightly coiled DNA (during cell division)
how many chromosomes are in somatic cells? 46
how many chromosomes are in sex cells? 23 from mom and 23 from dad; makes 23 pairs
DNA instructions for proteins
genes DNA instructions for a single protein
a sequence of bases (AT,CG) makes what? a triplet
what is another name for triplet? codon
3 bases equal what? 1 amino acid
transcription copies dna to rna
translation rna get codes from mRNA to make amino acids
all of steps in notes notes better to study to learn steps
Created by: Lacey1



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