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Stack #165358

Classification and Structure of Bones

QuestionAnswer
The skeleton is form of two of the most supportive tissues cartilage and bone
Embryos skeleton is predominantly form of Hyaline Cartilage
Functions of skeleton *Supportive and Protection*Movement*Store lipids and many minerals*Red cell formation on the Red Marrow
Skeleton bones are connected by joints and articulations
Skeleton subdivided into two division: Axial Skeleton and Appendicular Skeleton
Axial Skeleton skull, vertebrates and ribs
Appendicular skeleton Limbs, shoulder bones, iliac.
Total amount of bones in a adult 206
Kind of bones by texture Compact and spongy or cancellous
Compact bone Smooth, dense and homogeneous
Spongy or cancellous Form by small trabeculae (bars) of bones and lots of open space
Gross anatomy divides bones in form groups: Long, short, flat and irregular
Describe a long bone Are longer than wide, generally have a shaft with heads at either end. They composed mainly with compact bone. Examples: femur and phalages.
Describe a shot bone Cube shaped, they have more spongy bone than compact. Examples: carpals and tarsals.
Describe a flat bone Thin, two outer layers of compact bone and center layer og spongy bone. Example the skull bones
Irregular Bones vertebrates
Tuberosity Large rounded projection; may be roughened
Trochanter Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process
Process Prominence or projection
Condyle Round articular projection
Sinus Space within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
Meatus Canal-like passageway
Fossa Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
Foramen Round or oval opening through a bone
Diaphysis Shaft of the bone. Smooth surface, which is composed of compact bone
Epiphysis End of a long bone. Composed by a thin layer of compact bone encloses spongy bone
Periosteum Fibrous membrane covers the bone. Blood vessels and nerves travel through it and invade the bone
Perforating Fibers (Sharpey's) Periosteum fibers that penetrate into the bone
Osteoblast bone-forming cells
Osteoclast bone-destroying cells, found on the inner, or osteogenic, layer of the periosteum
Articular cartilage Covers the epiphyseal surface in place of the periosteum.
Epiphyseal Plate thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of bone during youth
Epiphyseal Lines Epiphyseal plates replace with bone. Appear as a thin line once a long bone stops growing.
Medullary cavity Central cavity of the shaft. This region store adipose tissue or yellow marrow.
Red marrow Infacts, forming blood cells and is found in the marrow cavity.Adults, is found in the interior of epiphyses.
Endosteum lining the interior of the shaft
Hardnes of a bone is due to: Inorganic calcium salts deposited in its ground substance
Flexibility of a bone is due to: Organic elements in the matrix, particularly collagen fibers.
Central Canal (Havesian Canal) Runs parallel to the bone and carries blood vessels, nerves and lymph vessels through the bony matrix.
Osteocytes Mature-bone cells
Lacunae Chambers that encloses osteocytes, arranged in teh circumferential lamellae.
Circumferencial lamallae concerntric circles around the central canal
Interstitial lamallae Remnants of circumferencial lamallae that have been broken down
Osteon or Havesian system Form by the central canal and all the circumferencial lamallae
Canaliculi Tiny canals that connect the lacunae between lamallaes to supply nutrients.
Perforating canals (Volkmann's) Helps the communication of the central canal between bone interior and external surface.
Endochondral Ossification Uses hyaline cartilage as patterns for bone formation.
Skeletal Cartilage Hyaline, elastic and fibroelastic
Hyaline Cartilage Most abundant skeletal cartilage. Provides sturdy support with some resilience.
Elastic Cartilage Elastic fibers. More flexible than the hyaline and tolerates repeated bending better.
Fibroelastic Cartilage Consist of rows of chondrocytes alternating a row of thick collagen fibers.Has great tensile strength and withstand heavy compression.
Fontanels Fibrous membranes indented between the bones of a fetal skull. Ossify at 20 to 22 months and they facilites the birth.
Name the fontanels Anterior, Sphenoidal, mastoid and occipital.
Created by: Espy