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Anatomy 1.2

Organization of the Human Body

What is the smallest recognizable part of the body which is capable of performing all the activities of life? A Cell
What is the basic structural and functional unit of an organism? A Cell
A group of chemicals working together to perform a specific function... A Cell
Tissue: Two or more cells arranged to perform a specific function.
What makes up the tissues of the body? Cells
How many basic or primary types of tissue are there in the body? 4
What are the primary tissues of the body? Epithelial, Connective, Nerve, Muscle
What does Epithelial Tissue do? It covers the body surfaces (skin); it lines hollow organs (mouth, esophagus); it is described as being mosaic or tile-shaped in structure or pattern.
What kind of Epithelial Tissue lines the inside of blood vessels? Endothelium or Endothelial Tissue
What kind of Epithelial Tissue helps to form glands? Glandular Endothelial Tissue. These cells are specialized to secrete substances like digestive enzymes, hormones, perspiration and wax.
What are the three types of glands? The Exocrine Glands, the Endocrine Glands, and the Heterocrine Glands.
Exocrine Glands: These glands secrete substances or products into ducts that empty onto the surface of the body or into a body cavity or hollow organ.
What are some examples of Exocrine Glands? Sweat glands (secrete sweat), Salivary glands (secrete digestive enzymes) and Mammary glands (secrete milk)
Endocrine Glands: These glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. They are considered ductless glands.
What are some examples of Endocrine Glands? Pituitary glands (secrete growth hormones), Thyroid glands (secrete thyroxin, a metabolic hormone), Adrenal glands (secrete adrenaline).
What kind of glands always produce hormones? Endocrine Glands
Heterocrine Glands: These glands have both endocrine and exocrine portions.
What is an example of a Heterocrine Gland? The pancreas. The exocrine portion of the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes. The endocrine portion (called the Islets of Langerhans or the Pancreatic Islets) regulates the usage of glucose in the body.
What kind of tissue helps to form glands? Epithelial Tissue.
What does Connective Tissue do? It connects, binds, protects, and supports the body and it's organs. It is the most abundant tissue in the body. It is found almost everywhere within the body: bones, muscles, skin, etc. It consists of relatively few cells in a matrix.
What is the most abundant tissue in the body? Connective Tissue
Where is Connective Tissue found in the body? It is found almost everywhere in the body: within the bones, the cartilage, the mucous membranes, the muscles and skin and in all internal organs.
What are 5 categories of connective tissues? Dense Connective Tissue, Adipose Connective Tissue, Cartilage, Osseous Connective Tissue, and Vascular Connective Tissue.
What is the purpose of Dense Connective Tissue? This tissue is strong and provides attachment between structures.
What are some examples of Dense Connective Tissue? Tendons, Ligament, Aponeurosis, Periosteum, Perichondrium, and Fascia.
What is the purpose of Adipose Connective Tissue? This tissue is made up of specialized cells which store fat. It is around the heart and kidneys, in yellow bone marrow and behind the eye socket. It reduces heat loss through the skin, reserves energy and supports & protects the organs of the body.
What is the purpose of Cartilage (Connective Tissue)? The tissue is avascular (has no blood vessels or nerves) and gets its nourishment from the perichondrium.
What is the purpose of Osseous Connective Tissue? This connective tissue is bone. It is the hardest type of connective tissue.
What is the purpose of Vascular Connective Tissue? This connective tissue refers to blood. Blood is a liquid connective tissue.
Tendons Connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.
Ligaments Connective tissue that connects bone to bone.
Aponeurosis Connective tissue: a broad flat tendon that serves as attachment for a flat muscle with another muscle (muscle to muscle) or muscle to bone.
Periosteum Connective tissue that covers bone and is essential for bone growth, nutrition and repair.
Perichondrium Connective tissue that covers and nourishes cartilage.
Fascia A sheet or band of connective tissue that supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body.
What type of connective tissue endures the most stress and strain? The Cartilage.
What are the three types of cartilage? Hyaline Cartilage, Fibro-Cartilage, Elastic Cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage: The most abundant cartilage in the body, it is found in joints, reducing friction between bones, allows for flexibility and support, and is the weakest of the three types of cartilage. Broken down into Articular Cartilage and Costal Cartilage.
What are the two types of Hyaline Cartilage? Articular Cartilage, and Costal Cartilage.
Articular Cartilage: A Hyaline Cartilage located at the end of the bones, at a joint - the point of between two or more bones.
Costal Cartilage: A Hyaline Cartilage located at the ventral ends of the ribs, where they attach to the sternum.
Fibro-Cartilage: Cartilage which combine strength and rigidity. It is the strongest of the 3 types of cartilage and is found between the vertebra, and in the public symphysis (where the hip bones join anteriorly)
Elastic Cartilage: Cartilage which maintains the shape of various structures. It is found in the epiglottis, the external part of the ear and the auditory or eustacian tubes.
Osseous Tissue: Bone tissue. It is the hardest type of connective tissue.
What kind of tissue is bone? Osseous Tissue.
What kind of tissue is blood? Vascular Tissue.
What is the strongest type of cartilage? Fibro-Cartilage.
Vascular Tissue: Blood. It is a liquid connective tissue.
Nerve or Nervous Tissue: This tissue initiates and transmits nerve impulses & coordinates body activities.
Muscle Tissue: This tissue is specialized to produce movement in response to nerve impulses.
How many types of muscles are there & what are they called? 3 types: Skeletal Muscles, Cardiac Muscles, Visceral Muscles
Skeletal Muscles: These muscles are attached to bones. These muscles are striated and are voluntary because we have conscious control to move these muscles as we wish.
Cardiac Muscle: This muscle forms the wall of the heart. It is striated and is involuntary because we can not consciously control it.
Visceral Muscle: This muscle is located in the walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels, airways to the lungs, stomach, intestines, gall bladder and urinary bladder. It is smooth and not striated and is involuntary.
Which muscles are voluntary? The skeletal muscle.
What muscle is smooth? The visceral muscle.
How many tissues are organs composed of? Two or more tissues.
Organ: Composed of 2 or more tissues, arranged together to perform a specific common function. These are independent body parts.
System: An association of organs that have a common function. Urinary system, respiratory system, digestive system...
Membranes: These are thin sheets of flexible tissue that cover or line a part of the body. They contain epithelial and connective tissue (epithelial membranes) or just connective tissue (synovial membrane)
How many types of membranes are there, and what are they called? 3 types: Mucous membrane (mucosa), Synovial membrane, Serous membrane (serosa)
Mucous Membrane (Mucosa): These membranes line a body cavity that opens directly to the outside. They line the entire digestive, respiratory, reproductive and much of the urinary systems.
Synovial Membrane: These membranes line the cavities of freely moving joints, such as the knees, the shoulders, and the elbows. They secrete a fluid called synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the cartilage covering the bones.
Serous Membrane (Serosa): These membranes line cavities which do not open to the outside. They serve to cover organs and secrete a watery lubricating fluid (serous fluid) that allows organs to glide easily over one another.
Serous Membranes always have how many layers? They always have two layers separated by a cavity.
What membranes are found in the form of an invaginated double-walled space? The Serous Membranes.
What are the two layers of the Serous Membrane? The Parietal Layer & the Visceral Layer
Parietal Layer of the Serous Membrane: This is the layer which attaches to the cavity wall.
Visceral Layer of the Serous Membrane: This is the layer which covers and attaches to the organs inside of the cavity.
What are the three main types of Serous Membranes? The 3 Ps: The Pleura, the Pericardium, and the Peritoneum.
Pleura: Serous membrane lining the Thoracic Cavity, covering the lungs. The parietal pleura is the layer attached to the cavity wall, and visceral pleura covers the lungs. The pleural cavity is the space between the two & is filled with fluid.
Pericardium: Serous membrane lining the heart cavity, covering the heart. Parietal layer is attached to the cavity wall & the visceral layer (or epicardium) covers the heart. The Pericardial Cavity is between the 2 layers & is filled with fluid.
Peritoneum: Serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity, covering abdominal organs. Parietal peritoneum covers wall of abdo.pelvic cavity. Visceral covers some of the organs in the cavity. Peritonal cavity: slim space between the two layers, filled w fluid.
What type of serous fluid fills the Pleura? The pleural fluid.
What kind of serous fluid fills the Pericardium? The pericardial fluid.
What kind of serous fluid fills the peritoneum? The peritoneal fluid.
What cavity does the pleura line? What organ(s) does it cover? This membrane lines the Thoracic Cavity and covers the lungs.
What cavity does the pericardium line? What organ(s) does it cover? This membrane lines the Pericardium Cavity and covers the heart.
What cavity does the peritoneum line? What organ(s) does it cover? This membrane covers the abdominal cavity and covers abdominal organs and organs in the pelvic cavity.
Created by: kellyrb