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Chapter 2 Notes

What is chemistry? the study of composition of substances and how they change
What kinds of chemicals are found in the human body? salts, water, carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
What is matter? anything that has weight and takes up space
What forms of matter are there? solids, liquids, and gases
What is an atom? the smallest particle of matter
What is an electron? an atom with a negative charge, no weight, and stays in constant motion around the nucleus
What is a proton? an atom with a positive charge and is found in the nucleus
What is a neutron? an uncharged atom that is found in the nucleus
What is an ion? an atom charged by gaining or losing electrons
What is a molecule? something formed by the union of 2 or more atoms
What is mass? the amount of a substance not the weight
What is weight? how heavy something is
What is all matter composed of? elements
What is a compound? pure and other elements combined together
What are bulk elements? elements the body requires in large amounts and create more than 95% of the body
What are trace elements? elements the body requires in small amounts
What is an enzyme? a protein that regulates rates of chemical reactions
What is an ultratrace element? an element that is toxic to the body in large amounts but required in tiny amounts
What is an example of an ultratrace element? arsenic
What is a chemical bond? attractions between atoms
What are the major or bulk elements that make up the human body? Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Chlorine, Sodium, and Magnesium
What are the trace elements found in the human body? Cobalt, Copper, Fluorine, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, and Zinc
What is in the center of an atom? the nucleus and one or more electrons that constantly move around it
What is in the nucleus? one or more protons and usually neutrons
What charge does the nucleus have? positive
What is the atomic number? the number of protons the element has
What is the atomic weight? the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
What is an isotope? atoms with the same atomic number (number of protons) but different atomic weights (number of neutrons) but are the same element
What determines the reactiveness of atoms? electrons
What is a radioactive isotope? an unstable isotope
What is the energy that radioactive isotopes emit? atomic radiation
What are the three forms of radiation? alpha, beta, and gamma
What do two or more atoms combine to form? a molecule
What is short hand to depict the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule? molecular formula
Electrons in an atom occupy one or more regions of space around the atom called the? electron shell
In an element (atomic number 18 and under) how many electrons can the first shell hold? 2
In an element (atomic number 18 and under) how many electrons can the second shell hold? 8
In an element (atomic number 18 and under) how many electrons can the third shell hold? 8
What determines how atoms react with other atoms? the number of electrons in the outer shell
What are atoms that gain or lose electrons? ions
What is a positive ion called? cation
What is a negative ion called? anion
What is an ionic bond? a bond made by atoms gaining or losing electrons
What is a covalent bond? a bond mady by atoms sharing electrons
What is a polar molecule? a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally
What type of bond is water? polar covalent
What is a hydrogen bond? the attraction of the positive H to the negative N or O
Are hydrogen bonds weak or strong? weak
What is a reactant? the starting materials changed by a chemical reaction
What is a product? the atoms, ions, or molecules formed by a chemical reaction
What is a synthesis? when a chemical reaction occurs and 2 or more atoms bond (A+B=AB)
What is a decomposition? when a chemical reaction occurs and the reactants break down into simpler forms (AB=A+B)
What is an exchange? when parts of two different molecules trade places in a chemical reaction (AB+CD=AD+CB)
What is a reversible reaction? when the products can change back into the reactants (A+B<>AB)
What is a catalyst? molecules that influence the rates of chemical reactions
What is an acid? substance that releases hydrogen ions
What is base? substance that realeases ions that can combine with hydrogen
What is a salt? substance formed by the reaction of acids and bases
What is the pH scale? used to measure acidity/basicity
pH levels are how far apart? 10ths. (pH 5 is 100 times more acidic than pH 7)
What is the normal pH of blood? 7.35-7.45
What is alkalosis? pH of 7.5-7.8 (pt will feel dizzy and agitated)
What is acidosis? pH of 7.0-7.3 (pt will feel fatigue)
What is a buffer? a chemical that resists pH change
What two categories are all chemicals broken down into? organic and inorganic
What is an organic chemical? any chemical containing carbon and hydrogen
What is an inorganic chemical? any chemical not an organic chemical
Describe the properties of an organic chemical. long chains or ring structures due to carbon's ability to form 4 covalent bonds
Describe the properties of an inorganic chemical. dissolvable in water and form ions therefore, they are electrolytes
What are the common inorganic chemicals? water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts
What are the common organic chemicals? carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Created by: wmisaacharris



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