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Chapter 1 Notes

What is anatomy? the study of the structures of body parts, their forms, and organization
What is physiology? the study of the functions of body parts, what they do, and how they do it
Structure equals function
List the levels of organization. subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, organ systems, and organism
What is metabolism? all chemical reactions in an organism that support life
What are the characteristics of life? movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, and excretion.
Whar are the requirements of all organisms to maintain life? water, food, oxygen, heat, and pressure
What is homeostasis? the body's maintenance of a stable internal environment
How does the body maintain homeostasis? homeostatic mechanisms
What are the parts of a homeostatic mechanism? receptor, control center, and effector
What is a negative feedback mechanism? when your body moves conditions back towards the set point and then stop
Give an example of a negative feedback. when your body moves away from 98.6 F, your body gets it back to that temperature, then the feedback stops
What is a positive feedback mechanism? when your body moves conditions away from the set point
Give an example of a positive feedback child labor, and blood clotting
What is the axial body cavity and what does it contain? its the cavity that contains other cavities in your head, neck, and trunk
What is the appendicular cavity and what does it contain its the cavity that contains your upper and lower limbs
What type of membrane lines the walls of body cavities? serous membranes
parietal outside of membrane
visceral against organ
List the 12 body systems. integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary, excretion, and reproductive
What is the correct anatomical position? standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at side, palms forward
superior above
inferior below
anterior toward front
posterior toward back
medial towards midline
lateral toward the side
bilateral both sides
ipsilateral same side
contralateral opposite side
proximal closer to point of attachment
distal further from point of attachment
superficial near surface
deep more internal
sagittal disection divides into left and right
transverse dissection divides into superior and inferior
frontal dissection divides into anterior and posterior
abdominal between thorax and pelvis
acromial point of the shoulder
antebrachial forearm
antecubital space in front of elbow
axillary armpit
brachial arm
buccal cheek
carpal wrist
celiac abdomen
cephalic head
cervical neck
costal ribs
coxal hip
crural leg
cubital elbow
digital finger or toe
dorsum back
femoral thigh
frontal forehead
genital reproductive organs
gluteal buttocks
inguinal depressed area of abdominal wall near the thigh
lumbar lower back
mammary breast
mental chin
nasal nose
occipital lower back of head
oral mouth
orbital eye
otic ear
palmar palm of hand
patellar front of knee
pectoral chest
pedal foot
pelvic pelvis
perineal between anus and genitals
plantar sole of foot
popliteal back of knee
sacral posterior region between hip bones
sternal middle of thorax
sural calf of leg
tarsal ankle
umbilical navel
vertebral spinal column
Created by: wmisaacharris