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Bio 260/Ch 13

Chp 13/Nervous system/dr brulte/martini

QuestionAnswer
True or False;Portions of the brain can rework their electrical connections as new 411 arrives (ex of learning) true
Name FX of Nervous sytem 1. control & adjust control of other organ systems 2. use chemical communication with tissues and organs 3. provides swift but short lived responses to stimuli
What are the 2 subdivisions of the Nervous System (neural tissue)? 1. CNS (central nervous system) 2. PNS (peripheral nervous system)
What do the CNS consist of? brain and spinal cord
During embroyonic development of CNS, the CNS begins as a mass of neural tissue organized as a __ __ hollow tube
AS CNS DEVELOPMENT CONTINUES,WHAT HAPPENS TO CENTRAL CAVITY? CENTRAL CAVITY DECREASES IN SIZE BUT THICKNESS OF WALLS & DIAMETER OF ENCLOSED SPACE CAN VARY
The ___ __ or narrow central cavity found within the spinal cord central canal
What are ventricles in the brain? expanded chambers,continuous with the central canal
What is the fluid that surrounds CNS by filling the central canal and ventricles CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
What is the 2nd anatomical division of the Nervous sytem,besides the CNS? PNS (peripheral nervous system);includes all neural tissue outside CNS (brain and spinal cord)
What are the main FX of PNS? 1. PNS provides sensory 411 to the brain 2. carries motor commands from the brain to peripheral tissues
What are the 2 subdivisions of PNS? 1. afferent (brings sensory info to CNS) 2. Efferent (carries motor commands to muscles/glands)
Where do the Afferent divison begin? receptors that moniter specific charateristics in the environment
Name 3 examples of receptors 1. dendrite (sensory process of neuron) 2. specialized cell or cluster of cells 3. complex sense organ like the eye
What does the stimulation of a receptor provide the CNS? sensory 411 carried to CNS
Where does the Efferent divsion of PNS begin? begins inside CNS (brain)
Where does the Efferent division of PNS end? ends at the Effector (muscle cell,gland cell,or other specialized cell
Both CNS (brain) & PNS carry somatic and ___ components visceral
The ___ division of the PNS carries 411 from somatic sensory receptors Afferent (sensory info going to the brain)
What do somatic sensory receptors of afferent division do? moniter skeletal muscle,joints,and the skin
The ____ division also delivers 411 from eyes and ears afferent (sensory 411 to brain)
The efferent division of the PNS are made up of ____ and _____ nervous system Somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
What does the SNS (somatic nervous system) do? 411 from the brain to PNS to contract muscles
What does the ANS (autonomic nervous system) do? 411 from the brain to PNS which regulates smooth muscle tissue,cardiac tissue,and glandular activity
What is the ANS also known as? visceral motor system of the efferent system of PNS and CNS (brain)
Somatic nervous system (SNS) can be ___ or ___ voluntary (direct control) or involuntary
Name the 2 cell types that make up neural tissue 1. nerve cells or neurons 2. supporting cells or Neuroglia (glial cells)
___ are responsible form the transfer & processing of 411 in the nervous system Neurons
What is a cell body? soma
What is the region around the cell nucleus of the neuron? perikaryon
What is the FX of the dendritic spines or branches of the neuron in the CNS (brain)? receives 411 from other neurons
Dendritic spines of the branches from the neuron makes up about ___ % of the total surface area 80-90%
Name the 2 cell types that make up neural tissue 1. nerve cells or neurons 2. supporting cells or Neuroglia (glial cells)
What happens at the synaptic terminals? neuron communicates with each other
In the neuron,where are the organelles found for energy production and biosynthesis of organic molec like enzymes? soma (body)
___ are responsible form the transfer & processing of 411 in the nervous system Neurons
What is a cell body? soma
What is the region around the cell nucleus of the neuron? perikaryon
What is the FX of the dendritic spines or branches of the neuron in the CNS (brain)? receives 411 from other neurons
Dendritic spines of the branches from the neuron makes up about ___ % of the total surface area 80-90%
What is the cell body attached to? elongated axon that ends with one or more synaptic terminals
What happens at the synaptic terminals? neuron communicates with each other
In the neuron,where are the organelles found for energy production and biosynthesis of organic molec like enzymes? soma (body)
What is the FX of neuroglia? isolate the neurons; provide a supporting framework; maintain intercellular environment; phagocytes
Supporting cells or glial cells are roughly ___ times the number of neurons five times; or half of the vol of nervous system
What are the diffs of glial cells compared to neurons? glial: smaller and can divide ; neurons lose ability to divide
What are organizational diffs of neural tissue of CNS to PNS due to? diffs in glial cell populations
What are the 4 types of glial cells in the CNS? 1. Ependymal 2. astrocytes 3. microglia 4. oligodendrocytes
The ___ are the largest and most numerous glial cells in the CNS astrocytes
The processes of astrocytes contact the neuron cell bodies,axons, and _____ walls capillary
What is the functional unit of the nervous system? neurons
_____ neurons typically have a long dendrite and short axon, and carry messages from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. sensory
___ neurons have a long axon and short dendrites and transmit messages from the central nervous system to the muscles (or to glands). Motor
___ are found only in the central nervous system where they connect neuron to neuron. Interneurons
myelin sheath formed from the plasma membranes of specialized glial cells known as ____ Schwann cells
The gap between Schwann cells is known as the ___ __ ___, and serves as points along the neuron for generating a signal. Node of Ranvier
___ act both to shield neurons from direct contact with other neurons and to limit exposure to interstitial fluid Astrocytes
Nasme 5 FX of Astrocytes in the CNS 1. maintain blood-brain barrier 2. create three-dimensional framework for CNS 3. repair damaged neurons 4. guide neuron development 5. rapid transit system for interstitial environment
Why should neural tissue be physically and biochemically isolated from general circulation? hormones or other chemicals can have adverse or disruptive effects on neuron FX
Which area on CNS is responsible for the blood-brain barrier? endolethial cells lining CNS capillarieis
What do CNS endolethial capillaries have to control chemical exchange between blood and interstitial fluid? very restricted permeability traits
How do astrocytes maintain blood-brain barrier (BBB)? 1. Astrocytes secrete chemicals 2. end of slender cytoplasmic extensions of astrocytes ends in "feet" that wrap around capillaries 3. feet wrap around capillaries of the CNS interrupted only when other glial cells contact cap. walls
What do astrocytes have to provide mechanical strength to form strucural framework of brain and spinal cord? astrocytes packed with microfilaments that extend across breadth of the cell
How do astrocytes repair injured neurons? stabilize the injured tissueand prevent further damage by producing scar tissue at injury site
How are astrocytes involved in early development of neurons? direct interconnection and growth of early neurons by secreting neutropic factors
How do astrocytes control interstitial environment? provide rapid transit between capillaries and neurons to transport ions,nutrients,dissolved gases; absord and recycle neurotransmitters released at synaptic terminals
How are oligodendrosytes diff/similar to astrocytes in CNS? Diff: 1. smaller cell bodies & fewer processes Similarities: 1. both posses slender sytoplasmic feet
Name 3 FX of oligodendrocytes when in contact to axons or or cell bodies of neurons: 1. tie clusters of axons 2. regulate extracellular ion concent 3. improve functional performance by wrapping axons in myelin (insulating )
What are the FX of oligodendrocytes at cell bodies? not determined yet
What makes up the myelin sheath covering by the tip of the oligodendrocytes on axons? phospholipids makes up membranous coating
What is the FX of the myelin sheath on axons? increase the speed of nerve impulse or action potential
The large areas of myelinated sheath along axons are called ___ internodes
small gaps or ___ of __ exist between the myelin sheath produced by adjacent oligodendrocytes. nodes of ranvier
When dissected what color are the myelin sheath and why? glossy white due to lipids; called white matter of the CNS
What are the unmyelinated axons called? gray matter due to dusky color
What is the smallest glial cells in CNS? microglia
How did microglia or the "roving security force" evolve? appeared early in embroyonic develop. through division of mesodermal stem cells...microglia migrate into CNS and stay there
How do microglia look? smallest glial cells with slender processes of many fine branches
The stem cells that produce microglia are related to those that produce ___ and ___ of the blood. Monocytes & macrophage
What is the FX of microglia? engulf cellular debris,waste products,and pathogens
What is the cellular layer that lines the ventricles of the brain and spinal cord ? ependyma
What are the ventricles or chambers of CNS filled with? cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
What is the FX of the CSF? protective cushioning and transports dissolved gases,nutrients,wastes,and other materials
What is the shape of ependymal cells? cuboidal to columnar
How are ependymal cells unlike regular epithelial cells ependymal cells have slender processes that branch extensively and make direct contact with glial cells
What does the experimental evidence indicate of ependymal's role? they act as receptors that moniter CSF;in early developement and childhood,free ependymal cells are lined with cilia;
Within the ventricles what role do specialized ependymal cells have? secretion of CSF
Cilliated ependymal cells in the adult may assist in ____ circulation of CSF
How are neuron cell bodies in the PNS organized? clustered together and wrapped in CT to form peripheral nerves or nerves.
All neuron cell bodies and axon in the PNS are insulated by what? processes of glial cells
What are the 2 glial cells in the PNS? 1. satellite cells 2. Schwann cells
Amphicytes or ____ cells surround neuron cell bodies in PNS satellite
What is the FX of satellite cells in PNS? regulate exchange of nutrients and waste products between neuron cell bodies and the extracellular fluid; help isolate PNS neuron from stimuli other than those at the synapses
Every peripheral axon,whether it is myelinated or not, is covered by ___ cells or neurolemmocytes Schwann
The cell membrane or of an axon in the PNS is called ___ axolemma; lemma = husk
The neurilemma is the cytoplasmic covering provided by the ___ cell. schwann
How does a Schwann cell in PNS differ from Oligodendrocyte of CNS? Schwann cell: can only meyelinate 1 mm along axonOligodendrocyte in CNS can myelinate portions of several axons
Myelianted axons in both CNS and PNS both have ___ and ___. nodes and internodes
The presence of myelinated axons in both CNS and PNS increases the rate of __ __ nerve impulse or action potential
Unmyelinated axons or gray matter in the PNS are enclosed by ___ cells but no myelin forms Schwann
A single Schwann cell can surround several diff ___ axons unmyelinated
The neuron has a large,round nucleus with prominent nucleolus. (True or False) True
What is the name of the neuron's surrounding cytoplasm? perikaryon; karyon = nucleus
The cytoskeleton of the perikaryon (cytoplasm) contains __ and ___. neurofilaments & neurotubules
Bundles of neurofilaments,called ___, are part of the cytoskeleton but extend into the axon and dendrites. neurofibrils
Which part of the neuron contains the organelles that provide energy and perform biosynthetic activities. perikaryon (cytopolasm)
The cytoskeleton of the perikaryon (cytoplasm) contains __ and ___. neurofilaments & neurotubules
Bundles of neurofilaments,called ___, are part of the cytoskeleton but extend into the axon and dendrites. neurofibrils
Which part of the neuron contains the organelles that provide energy and perform biosynthetic activities. perikaryon (cytopolasm)
What gives the perikaryon a a coarse,grainy look? numerous mitochondria,free and fixed ribosomes,RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum
Waht is the name of the ribosomal clusters that accounts for the gray color of the areas with neuron cell bodies? Nissl bodies
why can't neurons divide? lack of centrosomes complex; lose centrioles as they specialize;cannot divide
What happens to these specialized neuron cells that get injured? cannot be replaced;
Name one primary FX of the Glial cells (neuroglia) limit number or types of stimulus affecting individual neurons
Besides the cell bodies and dendrites,where do glial cells not cover? synaptic terminals or where dendrites FX as sendory receptors
Can exposure to appropriate stimuli cause an action potential (localized change in the transmembrane potential)? yes
What is a transmembrane potential? property resulting from unequal distribution of ions across cell membrane
What is an axon (nerve fiber)? long cytoplasmic process capable of propagating an action potential
Where is an axon hillock found? multipolar neuron found in CNS;responsible for sending motor commands down to PNS
What is the FX of the axon hillock? connect initial (start of) axon to soma
What does the axoplasm or cytoplasm of axon contain? neurofibrils(bundles of neurofilaments);neurotubules (cytoskeleton);small vesicles;lysosomes,mictochond;various enzymes
An axon may produce side brances called ___ collaterals
What do the main truck of axon or any collaterals end in? fine terminal extensions (telodendria)
The ending branches of axon (telodendria) then end in what? synaptic terminal
What is the FX of a synaptic terminal? where one neuron chemically communicates with another neuron or effector
What is axoplasmic transport? movement of organelles,nutrients,wastes,synthesized molec between cell body & synaptic terminal.
What is a synapse? specialized site where the neuron communicates with another neuron; synaptic terminal is part of it
What are the types of diff synaptic terminals based on the post synaptic cell? Neuron to neuron = synaptic knob Neuron to muscle = NMJ (neuromuscular junction)
Synaptic communication involves the release of specific chemicals or ____ neurotransmitters
What is another name for synaptic knob (neuron to neuron synapse) terminal bouton
What triggers the release of neurotransmitters? arrival of nerve impulse
Name 2 classifications of neurons 1. structure 2. shape
What is the structural classification based on? number of processes that project from the cell body
Name the 4 structures of Neurons: "Ana is Bipolar and must see Multiple Physicians"Ana= Anaxonic Bipolar= Bipolarmultiple= mutipolarphysicians= pseudounipolar
Which type of structural neuron is small,found in CNS and special sense organs;no anatomical clues to ID dendrites from axon Anaxonic
___ neurons have a number of fine dendrites that fuse together to form one;rare;unmyelinated axons;relay sensory info;cell body in the middle Bipolar
What is the structural classification based on? number of processes that project from the cell body
Name the 4 structures of Neurons: "Ana is Bipolar and must see Multiple Physicians"Ana= Anaxonic Bipolar= Bipolarmultiple= mutipolarphysicians= pseudounipolar
Which type of structural neuron is small,found in CNS and special sense organs;no anatomical clues to ID dendrites from axon Anaxonic
___ neurons have a number of fine dendrites that fuse together to form one;rare;unmyelinated axons;relay sensory info;cell body in the middle Bipolar
Created by: mich826