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A&P Chapter 1

Anatomy and Physiology - (Chapter 1) The Human Body: An Orientation

Anatomy the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another
Gross Anatomy is observed when we are studying large, easily observable structures
Microscopic Anatomy the study of body structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye
Physiology the study of how the body and its parts work or function
Neurophysiology explains the workings of the nervous system
Cardiac Physiology studies the function of the heart
Chemical Level simplest level of the structural ladder
Cellular Level simplest unit of life, made of molecules
Tissue Level consists of similar types of cells
Organ Level complex functions become possible, made of different types of tissues
Organ System Level different organs work closely together
Organismal Level sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive
Atoms tiny building blocks of matter
Cells smallest units of all living things
Tissues consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function (4 types: epithelial, connective, muscular, and neural)
Organ structure composed of two or more tissue types that performs a specific function for the body
Organ System group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose
Organism represents the highest level of structural organization
Integumentary System external covering of the body, the skin waterproofs, cushions, protects from injury, excretes salts, helps regulate body temp
Skeletal System consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints supports body, provides framework for skeletal muscles, also provides protection, bones act as mineral storehouse
Hematopoiesis formation of blood cells, takes place within the cavities of the skeleton
Skeletal Muscles allow movement and mobility of body
Muscular System formed by skeletal muscles
Nervous System the body's fast-acting control system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors
Endocrine System controls body activities but acts much more slowly glands produce hormones and release them into the blood to travel to relatively distant organs; glands include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, and testes
Hormones chemical molecules
Cardiovascular System primary organs are heart and blood vessels, carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from tissue cells where exchanges are made; blood is the transporting fluid
Lymphatic System complements the cardiovascular system, organs include lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid organs such as the the spleen and tonsils returns leaked fluid from blood back to blood vessels
Respiratory System keeps body constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide, consists of nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trace, bronchi, lungs
Digestive System basically a tube running from the mouth to the anus, organs include the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and accessory organs they break down food and deliver products to the blood for bodily dispersal
Urinary System (aka Excretory System) removes nitrogen-containing wastes from the body and flushes them from the body in urine, also maintains the body water and salt balance as well as regulates the acid-base balance of blood composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
Reproductive System exists to produce offspring male: testes, scrotum, penis,accessory glands, and duct system female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
Movement includes all the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another and manipulating the external environment with our fingers
Digestion the process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood
Responsiveness/Irritability ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and react to them
Metabolism broad term that refers to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells
Excretion process of removing excreta (wastes) from the body
Reproduction the production of offspring, can occur on the cellular or organismal level
Growth an increase in size, usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells
Survival Needs factors that are necessary for life (nutrients, oxygen, water, appropriate temperature, and atmospheric pressure)
Nutrients taken in through food, contain the chemicals used for energy and cell building
Oxygen needed for chemical reactions that release the energy from food
Normal Body Temperature needed to be constant for chemical reactions to continue, below 98 degrees fahrenheit metabolic reactions become slower and slower before finally stopping
Atmospheric Pressure force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air, breathing and the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide are dependent on this
Homeostasis the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing
Receptor some type of sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment, sends info to the control center along the afferent pathway
Control Center determines the level (set point) at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the info it receives and then determines the appropriate response of course of action
Effector provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus; info flows from the control center to the effector through the efferent pathway
Negative Feedback most homeostatic control mechanisms, the net effect of the response to the stimulus it to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity
Positive Feedback rare in the body, they tend to increase the original disturbance (stimulus) and to push the variable farther from its original value
Homeostatic Imbalance disease that is regarded as a result of a disturbance in homeostasis
Superior (cranial or cephalad) toward the head end or upper part of a structure of the body; above
Inferior (caudal) away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Ventral (anterior) toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Dorsal (posterior) toward or at the backside; behind
Medial toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Intermediate between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial (external) toward or at the body surface
Deep (internal) away from the body surface; more internal
Abdominal the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
Antecubital the anterior surface of the elbow
Axillary the armpit
Brachial the arm
Buccal the cheek
Carpal the wrist
Cervical the neck region
Coxal the hip
Deltoid the roundness of the shoulder caused by the underlying deltoid muscle
Digital the fingers or toes
Femoral the thigh
Fibular the side of the leg
Inguinal the groin
Mammary the breast
Manus the hand
Nasal the nose
Oral the mouth
Orbital the bony eye socket (orbit)
Patellar the anterior knee (kneecap) region
Pelvic the pelvis region
Pubic the genital region
Sternal the region of the breastbone
Thoracic the chest
Tarsal the ankle
Umbilical the navel
Cephalic the head
Gluteal the buttocks or rump
Lumbar the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Occipital the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
Popliteal the back of the knee
Sacral the area between the hips
Scapular the scapula or shoulder blade area
Sural the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Vertebral the area of the spinal column
Anatomical Position the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward
Directional Terms allow medical personnel and anatomists to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another
Section a cut that is made when preparing to look at internal structures of the body
Plane an imaginary line that a section is made across
Sagittal Section cut along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the body; divides into left and right parts
Midsagittal Section if the cut is down the median plane of the body and the right and left parts are equal in size
Frontal Section (Coronal Section) a cut along a lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse Section (Cross Section) cut along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts
Dorsal Body Cavity has two subdivisions that are continuous with each other, the cranial and spinal cavity
Cranial Cavity space inside the bony skull
Spinal Cavity extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column
Ventral Body Cavity larger than the dorsal body cavity, contains all structures within the chest and abdomen; is subdivided into the thoracic cavity, the abdominopelvic cavity, the abdominal cavity, the pelvic cavity
Thoracic Cavity separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm; contains the lungs, heart, etc. which are protected by the rib cage
Diaphragm dome shaped muscle inferior to the rib cage
Mediastinum separates the lungs into left and right cavities in the thoracic cavity; houses the heart, trachea, and several other visceral organs
Abdominopelvic Cavity cavity inferior to the diaphragm; can be divided into the abdominal and pelvic cavity
Abdominal Cavity superior to the pelvic cavity; contains the stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs
Pelvic Cavity inferior to the abdominal cavity; houses the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
Oral and Digestive Cavities commonly called the mouth, contains teeth and tongue; part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs which opens to the exterior at the anus
Nasal Cavity located within and posterior to the nose, part of the respiratory system passageways
Orbital Cavities house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
Middle Ear Cavities lie medial to the eardrums, contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears
Umbilical Region centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
Epigastric Region located superior to the umbilical region
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region inferior to the umbilical region
Right/Left Iliac (Inguinal) Regions are lateral to the hypogastric region
Right/Left Lumbar Regions lie lateral to the umbilical region
Right/Left Hypochondriac Regions flank the epigastric regions and contain the lower ribs
Created by: KeeganMattice