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Euro: Intro IDs

IDs for the West Before 1300

Alexander the Great Ruled Macedonia. Taught by Aristotle. Conquered Persian Empire. Created Hellenistic culture. r.336-323 BCE
Aristotle Pupil of Plato. Founded the Lyceym. Analyzed human knowledge and used empirical evidence. Believed in moderation and common sense. 384-322 BCE
Bourgeoisie Merchant class that gained power during the rise of towns. French word associated with the middle class. 1000+ CE
Charlemagne Ruled the Frankish Kingdom. Part of Carolingian dynasty. Crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III in 800. Monitored empire with missi dominici.Created Carolingian miniscule. r.786-814 CE
Cicero Orator. Father of Latin prose. Used rhetoric.Wrote on rhetoric, ethics, and politics. Wrote On the Laws. 104-34 BCE
Constasntine Temporarily reunited Roman empire. Moved capital to Byzantium. Converted to Christianity. r.306-337 CE
Diocletian Divided Roman empire into four different political administrative units. r.284-305 CE
Goths Germanic tribes. Invaded/pushed into western Europe by the Huns. Visigoths settled in Spain, Ostrogoths in Italy. 476+ CE
Guilds Came to power during rise of towns. Two types: merchant and craft. Similar to modern labor unions. 1000+ CE
Hammurabi Babylonian king (in Mesopotamia). Conquered other city states. Code of Hammurabi. r.1792-1750 BCE
Hanseatic League Formed from northern Germany. Controlled trade in Baltic and North seas. 1200+ CE
Huns Invasions into Europe pushed Germanic tribes westward. Pre-476 CE
Julius Caeser Defeated Pompey and the Senate in a civil war to become dictator of Rome in 46 BCE. Assassinated in 44 BCE. 100-44 BCE
Octavian Defeated Anthony to become emperor of Rome at the age of 32. Given title of Augustus. Began Pax Romana. 63-14 BCE
Plato Socrates' pupil. Founded the Academy. Wrote the dialogue The Republic. The Allegory of the Cave. Divine essences. 429-347 BCE
Serf Peasants bound to the land on which they worked which was owned by feudal lords. Middle Ages
Socrates Questioned/cross-examined people in the Athenian marketplace. Remained a loyal citizen despite criticism. Condemned to death (by taking hemlock). 469-399 BCE
Fief Land granted to a vassal in exchange for services, usually military. Middle Ages
Lower Egypt Egyptian land in the north. 3100 BCE onwards
Manor Village farms owned by a lord. Middle Ages
Mesopotamia Area between Tigris and Euphrates that contained ancient civilizations like Sumer, Assyria, Akkad, and Babylon. 3500 BCE onwards
Polis The basic Greek political unit. Oftentimes translated as "city-state". A community of citizens theoretically descended from a common ancestor. In full power between 750-700 BCE
Upper Egypt Egyptian land in the south. Contained capital at Memphis. 3100 BCE
Crusades Pope urged wars to recapture the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims. 1095-1291 CE
Early Middle Ages Period of disorder and decline. Also known as the Dark Ages. 5th-10th century CE
High Middle Ages Advanced toward higher level of civilization. 11th-14th century CE
Middle Kingdom Followed the disorder/decentralization of the First intermediate Period when the nomarchs of Thebes gained control of the country. 2052-1630 BCE
New Kingdom When Egyptian nationalism reasserted itself after a dynasty from Thebes drove out the Hykos and reunited Egypt. 1550-1075 BCE
Old Kingdom Royal power (the pharaoh) is absolute. Peasants were heavily regulated/taxed. 2700-2200 BCE
Punic Wars Conflicts between the expanding Rome and the naval power of the Mediterranean, Carthage. Includes First and Second wars. Rome victorious. First: 264-241 BCE Second: 218-202 BCE
Civilization A form of human culture marked by urbanism, metallurgy, and writing.
Excommunication Denial by the church of the right to receive sacraments.
Feudalism Lords own land, give fiefs to vassals in return for loyalty/military service, serfs work land. Middle Ages
Magna Carta The "Great Charter" limiting royal power that the English nobility forced King John to sign. 1215 CE
Rosetta Stone Stone including the same repeated parts translated in Egyptian hieroglyphics, demonic, and Greek.
Scholastism Method of study based on logic and dialectic that dominated the medieval schools.Students had only to organize, elucidate and defend knowledge learned from authorititive texts, especially those of Aristotle and the Church Fathers. Middle Ages
Tariff A tax on imports or exports.
Akhenaton Egyptian pharaoh whom some scholars believe a form of monotheism originated with. r. 1367-1350 BCE
Created by: Asterisk13