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Anatomy 1

Intro to Human Anatomy

TermDefinition
Anatomical Position Individual is standing, facing forward, legs together, feet flat on ground with toes pointed forward, arms to the sides with arms and palms facing forward.
Lateral Refers to a location away from the medan plane or towards the side(s) of the body or body part.
Medial Refers to something which is located toward the midline or center of the body, or median plane of the body.
Proximal Refers to the nearest part of the body in proximity to the point of origin. Something that is located toward or closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
Distal Refers to the part of the body further away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk of the body, or farther from the point of origin.
Inferior/Caudal Refers to a structure that is located toward the tail end of the body or farther away from the head.
Superior/Cranial/Cephalic/Cephalad Refers to a structure located toward the head or upper part of the body, or farther away from the feet or the lower part of the body.
Posterior/Dorsal Toward or closer to the back of the body.
Anterior/Ventral Toward or closer to the front of the body.
Main Body Cavities Internal chambers where many of the organs are suspended.
Pleural Cavity Part of the Thoracic Cavity. There are two of these cavities within the Ventral or Anterior Cavity. Each are fluid filled spaces containing a lung, major blood vessels, situated between the visceral and parietal pleurae of the lungs.
Pericardial Cavity Part of the Thoracic Cavity which contains the heart.
Diaphragm A dome shaped muscle in the Anterior Cavity which divides the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.
Abdominopelvic Cavity This cavity starts just below the Diaphragm and continues down to the groin or pelvic bone. Included are both the Abdominal Cavity and the Pelvic Cavity.
Pelvic Cavity The inferior portion of the Abdominopelvic Cavity. This cavity houses the internal male and female reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon.
Anterior or Ventral Cavity Contains the Thoracic Cavity (Pleural and Pericardial Cavities), the Diaphragm, and the Abdominopelvic Cavity (Abdominal Cavity and Pelvic Cavity)
Spinal Cavity Houses the spinal cord.
Cranial Cavity Houses and cushions the brain.
Dorsal Cavity Includes both the Cranial Cavity and the Spinal Cavity, which are continuous with one another.
Thoracic Cavity The superior portion of the Ventral Cavity. Includes the Plueral Cavity and the Pericardial Cavity. It is surrounded by ribs to protect the vital organs.
Abdominal Cavity The superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. This cavity houses the stomach, small intestines, part of the large intestines, liver, gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and the adrenal (suprarenal) glands.
Anatomy definition The scientific discipline studying the body's structure and relationship between the various parts within the body.
Pathological Anatomy/Morbid Anatomy The study of the structural changes, microscopically and macroscopically, in the body as a result of disease.
Physiology/Physiological Anatomy The study of the functions of living things & how the body works.
Gross Anatomy/Macroscopic Anatomy The study of bodily structures that can be studies without the use of a microscope.
Microscopic Anatomy The study of bodily structures that can only be seen and studied with the use of a microscope
Histology A subdivision of Microscopic Anatomy focused on the study of bodily tissues.
Cytology A subdivision of Microscopic Anatomy focused on the study of the structure of individual cells.
Systemic Anatomy The study of the individual systems within the body such as the digestion, circulatory, skeletal or respiratory systems.
Regional Anatomy The study of the particular parts of the body (as separate units) such as the head, chest, abdominal regions, etc.
Prone Position Subject is lying face down or with anterior surface down.
Supine Position Subject is lying face up or with anterior surface up.
Deep Refers to a point toward the inside of the body or away from the surface of the body.
Superficial Refers to a point toward the surface of the body.
Parietal Relates to or forming the outer wall of a body cavity.
Visceral Pertains to organs, or the covering of an organ.
Internal Refers to points within the inside of the body.
External Refers to points on the exterior or outside of the body.
Peripheral Pertaining to parts on the outer surface of the body, occurring away from the center.
Central Pertains to parts toward the center of the body.
Flexion A muscle action or movement that decreases the angle at an articulation (joint). Basically bending.
Extension A muscle action or movement that increases the angle at an articulation (joint). Basically extending or straightening.
Abduction A muscle action that moves an extremity away from the midline of the body.
Adduction A muscle action that moves an extremity toward the midline of the body.
Supination The act of rotating your forearm so that the palm faces superiorly or anteriorly.
Pronation The act of rotating your forearm so that the palm faces inferiorly or posteriorly.
SAS Supination - Anterior - Superior
PIP Pronation - Inferior - Posterior
Sagittal Plane A Vertical plane which runs through the body and separates the body into left and right portions. There is no distinction regarding equality of the portions.
Midsagittal Plane or Median Plane A vertical plane which runs through the body, directly through the midline or center of the body and divides the body into equal portions.
Parasagittal Plane A vertical plane which runs through the body on one side or the other of the midline, dividing the body into UNEQUAL portions.
Frontal or Coronal Plane A vertical plane which runs through the body organ, dividing into anterior and posterior portions.
Horizontal; Transverse or Cross-Sectional Plane A horizontal plane that runs parallel to the ground and divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Oblique Plane A plane that divides the body and does not run parallel to the any of the vertical or horizontal planes.
Head A body region subdivided into the skull and the face.
Skull or Cranium A portion of the Head that encloses and protects the brain.
Neck or Cervical Region A body region which supports the head and attaches to the trunk of the body.
Trunk or Torso A body region to which the upper and lower extremities are attached. Composed of the Thorax, the Abdomen, and the Pelvis.
Thorax A portion of the Torso better known as the chest.
Abdomen A portion of the Torso which is between the diaphragm and the pelvis.
Pelvis The lower most portion of the torso. It is a basin-like structure formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx.
Upper Extremity or Limb A region of the body which attaches to the trunk and consists of the Arm and the Forearm.
Arm A portion of an Upper Extremity, from the shoulder to the elbow.
Forearm A portion of an Upper Extremity, from the elbow to the wrist. Also known as the antebrachium or antebrachial.
Lower Extremity or Limb A region of the body which attaches to the trunk and consists of the Thigh, the Leg and Groin.
Thigh A portion of the Lower Extremity, from the buttocks to the knee.
Leg A portion of the Lower Extremity, from the knee to the ankle.
Groin A portion of the front of the body marked by a crease on both sides, where the trunk attaches. Considered part of the Lower Extremity.
Face A portion of the Head, the anterior portion which includes the eyes, mouth, chin, forehead and cheeks.
The two principle cavities. The anterior/vental cavity and the posterior/dorsal cavity.
Cavities Spaces within the body which protects, supports and separates the various internal organs.
The two subcategories of Microscopic Anatomy Histology and Cytology.
Mediastinum Cavity Part of the Thoracic Cavity, a broad, median partition space located between the lungs which extends from the sternum (in front) to the vertebral column (in the back) and from the neck to the diaphragm. It contains the heart, esophagus, and trachea.
Created by: kellyrb