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AP1-Chapter 2

notes

QuestionAnswer
what is mater made of? atoms
what do characteristics determine? physiology on a molecular and cellular level
atomic particles: proton positive, 1 mass unit
atomic particles: neutron neural, one mass unit
atomic particles: electron negative, low mass
what is the atomic number? number or protons
what is the mass number? number of protons and neutrons
what is the atomic weight? sum of all particles
what is atomic weight measured in? daltons
what makes an isotope different from a regular element on the periodic table? different amount of neutrons
what is an isotope? two or more elements with equal numbers of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons
what are the three types of chemical bonds? ionic, covalent, hydrogen
how many electrons can the first energy level hold? two
how many electrons can all other energy levels hold? 8
what makes an ionic bond and ionic bond? it has either a positive or negative charge?
what is a cation? positively charged ion
what is an anion? negatively charged ion
what happens in an ionic bond? one element looses or gains an electron form the other
what happens in a covalent bond? atoms SHARE electrons
what are the two types of covalent bonds? polar and nonpolar
what is unique about a NONPOLAR covalent bond? they occur between two of the same type of atom
what is unique about a POLAR covalent bond? it occurs between different types of atoms and has an unequal sharing of electrons
what is the universal solvent? WATERRRRR
what is a hydrogen bond? a weak attraction between water molecules
what can a hydrogen bond on water surface cause? surface tension
what are the states of matter? solid, liquid, gas
solid definite shape and volume with very compacted slow-moving particles
liquid constant volume but change in shape with faster passed moving particles
gas no definitive shape or volume with very fast moving particles
what is energy? the power to do work
what is work? change is mass or distance
what are the 3 forms of energy? kinetic. potential, and chemical
what is kinetic energy? energy of motion
what is potential energy? stored energy
what is chemical energy? potential energy stored in chemical bonds
what is produced when energy is exchanged? heat
what is a decomposition reaction? breaks down molecules into smaller pieces AB -> A + B
what is a synthesis reaction? assembles small fragments into larger molecules A + B -> AB
what is another word used for decomposition reaction? catabolism
what is another word used for synthesis reaction? anabolism
what is hydrolysis reaction? water added to produce fragments A-B-C-D-E-+H2O --> A-B-C-H-HO-D-E
what is a dehydration reaction? water comes out of reaction A-B-C-H+OH-D-E --> A-B-C-D-E +H2O
what is activation energy? amount of energy required to start a reaction
AB -> A+ B what are the reactants? what are the products? reactants-AB-going into reaction products-A+B-comes out of reaction
which side of the equation contains reactants? left
which side of the equation contains the products? right
what is another word for reactant? substrate
what is a catalyst? lowers activation energy and speeds up reaction
what is an organic compound? deals with carbon or hydrogen
what is an inorganic compound? not dealing with carbon or hydrogen
what is a nutrient? essential molecules and elements normally obtained from food
what is a metabolite? larger molecule made or broken down in the body
what is most of our body weight? water
what is solubility? ability to dissolve solute in a solvent
what is the solute? dissolving substance
what is the solution? mixture
what is the solvent? liquid the solute is being dissolved in
what does lubrication do? reduces friction and moistens
what does hydrophilic mean? loving water; reacts well with water
which type of bond is hydrophilic? mostly POLAR bonds
what does hydrophobic mean? does not react well with water
which type of bond is hydrophobic? mostly NONPOLAR bonds for example fats and oils
what is pH? concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
what is H+? hydrogen ion
what is OH? hydroxide
what is neutral pH? balance of H+ and OH
what is the pH of pure water? 7.0-neutral
what does it mean if a solution is acidic? pH lower than 7; high H+ low OH
what does it mean if a solution is basic? pH higher than 7; high OH low H+
what is the pH of blood? 7.4
what is a salt? ionic bonds that contain no H+s or OHs example NaCl
what is a buffer? neutralizes acids and bases
monosaccharide simple sugars(3-7 carbon atoms) -glucose -fructose
what is the most important metabolic fuel of the human body? glucose
what is the chemical formula of glucose? C6H12O6; 1:2:1 ratio
disaccharide 2 simple sugars condensed by dehydration -sucrose
when glucose and fructose are combined what do they create? sucrose
what is a polysaccharide? MANY simple sugars -starches -glycogen -NOT EASY TO BREAK DOWN
where is glycogen stored? in the liver and muscles
what is glycogen? stored glucose
lipids -hydrophobic(mostly NONPOLAR); mostly carbon and hydrogen
what is he most abundant energy form in the body? fat
what are the 5 classes of lipids? -fatty acids -eicosanoids -glycerides -steroids -phospholipids and glycolipids
what two types of fatty acids can one have? saturated and unsaturated
saturated fatty acids are: harder to breakdown; very long and straight -saturated with hydrogen; no covalent bonds
unsaturated fatty acids are: easier to break down; curved and shorter -better for you -1 or more double bond
what are the two types of eicosanoids? leukotrienes and prostaglandins
leuktrienes involved in injury or disease; active in immune system
prostaglandins stimulate pain
what are glycerides? fatty acids attached to glyceride molecules
what is a triglyceride? 3 fatty acid tails; fat storage molecule
what are the 4 types of steroids? cholesterol, estrogens and testosterone, corticosteroids and calcitrol, and bile salts
what is cholesterol? component of cell membrane
what are estrogens and testosterone? sex hormones
what are corticosteroids and calcitrol? metabolic regulation
what are bile salts? processes dietary fats
what do phospholipids and glycolipids have? hydrophobic tails with hydrophilic heads
what is the cell membrane made of? phospholipids head liked h2o tail does not
what are proteins made of? amino acids
how many basic amino acids are there? 20
7 major protein function? support, movement, transport, enzymes, hormones, anitbodies (immune response, clotting proteins)
what do all amino acids have in common (4 things) -central carbon -hydrogen -amino group (-NH2) -caboxlic acrid group (-COOH)
what is the one thing that differs in amino acids? variable side chin or R group
peptide bond amino acid of 1 combines with coboxylic acid in other; peptide
protein structures: primary long straight chain: polypeptide
protein structures: secondary spirals (bending)
protein structures: tertiary bend again
protein structures: quaternary several tertiaries put together
what are the two protein shapes? fibrous and globular
fibrous proteins tough, in sheets/strands found in nails, hairs, nails, etc. DURABLE
globular proteins spherical shaped; very soluble
what are the two parts of an enzymes? substrate and active site
substrate reactants of an enzyme reaction
active site where the substrate join with the enzyme
what is a cofactor? ion or molecule that binds to make an enzyme
what is a coenzyme? vitamins
what are the three enzyme characteristics? specificity, saturation limit, and regulation
what is specificity? one enzyme catalyzes one reaction
what is saturation limit? max work rate; higher the saturation limit more frequent the reaction will occur
what is regulation? ability to turn the reaction on and off
shape and function of proteins -function id based on shape -made of chains of amino acids -denaturation (loss of shape and function due to heat or PH)
what are the two protein combinations? -glycoprotein -proteoglycans
what is a glycoprotein? small protein with LARGE CARB -mucus
what is a proteoglycans? -large polysaccharide & polypeptide -viscosity (syrup like)
nucleic acids store and process info at the molecular level
what are the two main types of nucleic acids? DNA and RNA
what is the name of DNA? deoxyribonucleic acid
what does DNA do? -inherited characteristics -protein synthesis -enzyme production -metabolism
what is the name of RNA? ribonucleic acid
what is the difference in DNA and RNA? DNA is a double helix; RNA is a single strand
what are the three types of RNA? messenger RNA (mRNA) transfer RNA (tRNA) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
what is a nucleotide? building block of DNA
what are the three molecular parts of a nucleotide? -sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) -phosphate group -nitrogenous base (A,T,G,C and U)
what are the complimentary bases of nucleotides? -Adenine-(A) -Thymine-(T) -Cytosine-(C) -Guanine-(G)
in RNA, what does Adenine match up with that differs from DNA? uracil (u)
which bases match up? A-T G-C A-U (RNA)
what is the name for ADP? adenosine diphosphate (two phosphate groups)
what is the name for ATP? adenosine triphosphate (3 phosphate groups)
what is the energy molecule? ATP
what is phosphorylation? adding a phosphate group to ADP with a high energy bond to form a high energy compound ATP
what is ATPase? enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation
Created by: Lacey1