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AP1-Chapter 1


what is anatomy? study of bodily structures and their relationships among the body parts. (the actual thing)
what are the 3 types of anatomy? 1. gross/macroscopic-LARGE 2. microscopic-VERY SMALL 3. developmental
what is physiology? study of how living organisms preform their vital functions. (function)
gross anatomy: surface study of general form and superficial markings
gross anatomy: regional focuses on organization of specific areas of the body (ex. arm and leg)
gross anatomy: systematic study of the structure of organ systems or group or groups of organs that function together in a conditional manner
gross anatomy: developmental describes the changes that occur between conception and physical maturity
gross anatomy: clinical includes a number of subspecialties important in the clinical practice (pathological, radiographic, and surgical)
microscopic anatomy: cytology analysis of the internal structures of an individual cell; or the study of cells
microscopic anatomy: histology examination/study of tissues
developmental anatomy traces structural changes throughout life
what is embryology? study of structural changes and processes that occur during THE FIRST TWO MONTHS OF DEVELOPMENT
physiology: cell study or function of cells
physiology: organ study of the physiology of specific organs
physiology: systematic includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems
physiology: pathological study of the effects of diseases on organ or organ system function
principle of complementarity anatomical structure that usually reflects the function. (FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION)
levels of structural organization: chemical atoms combine to form molecules
levels of structural organization: cellular molecules can interact to form various types of organelles, each with their own functions
levels of structural organization: tissue group of cells working together to preform one or more specific functions
levels of structural organization: organ made up of two or more tissues working in combination to preform several functions
levels of structural organization: organ system consists of different organs that interact and work closely together
levels of structural organization: organismal highest level of organization; made up of organ systems combined
organ systems: integumentary -largest system; covers the body - composed of hair, skin, nails, sweat and oil glands -protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
organ systems: skeletal -composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments -protects and supports body -framework for muscles -blood cell formation -stores minerals
organ systems: muscular -composed of muscle and tendons -allows manipulation, motion, and facial expressions -maintains posture -produces heat
organ systems: nervous -brain, spinal cord, and nerves (CNS) -fast-acting control system of the body -responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
organ systems: endocrine -pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, suprarenal glands, and gonads -directs long-term changes in bodily functions -adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body -controls many changes during development
organ systems: cardiovascular -heart, blood, and vessels -heart pumps blood -vessels disperse throughout body
organ systems: lymphatic -bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and tonsils -picks up fluid leaking from blood vessels and returns to blood -gets rid of waste on lymphatic stream -houses white blood cells (immunity)
organ systems: respiratory -nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs -keeps blood supplies with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
organ systems: digestive -oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, both intestines, rectum, anus, and liver -breaks down food into absorbable units -eliminates indigestible food as feces
organ systems: urinary -kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra -eliminates waste -regulates water, electrolytes, and pH balance of blood
organ system: male reproductive -prostate, penis, testicles, scrotum, and ductus deferens -produces offspring -testes make sperm and male sex hormones -ducts and glands deliver sperm to female reproductive tract
organ system: female reproductive -mammary glands, ovaries, vagina, uterine tubes and uterus -reproduction -ovary produces egg and female sex hormones -other part used for fertilization and housing developing fetus -mammary glands produce milk to nourish baby
organ interrrelationships basically, systems work together to preform tasks and maintain homeostasis
what is homeostasis? stable internal environment; a balance
what are the two types of homeostasis? -intrinsic regulation -extrinsic regulation
what is intrinsic regulation? when a cell, tissus, organ, organ system adjusts itself to Automatically respond to change
what is extrinsic regulation? when nervous or endocrine system must adjust activities...if auto doesn't work it kicks in to help
what are the three regulatory mechanisms of homeostasis? receptor, control center, and effector
what is a receptor? sensor that receives the stimulus
what is a control center? receives and processes the stimulus and sends out commands
what is the body's control center? the brain
what is an effector? cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and either enhances or opposes the stimulus
what is negative feedback? provides long term control over conditions and systems
what is the primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation? negative feedback
what is an example of homeostatic regulation =? thermoregulation
what is the less common form of homeostatic regulation? positive feedback
what is positive feedback? where the initial stimulus produces a response the exaggerates the change in original conditions rather than opposing it
sectional anatomy: cephalon head
sectional anatomy: cervicis neck
sectional anatomy: thoracis thorax or chest
sectional anatomy: antebrachium lower arm; forearm
sectional anatomy: carpus wrist
sectional anatomy: manus hand
sectional anatomy: abdomen abdominal region
sectional anatomy: lumbus lion
sectional anatomy: gluteus buttock
sectional anatomy: pelvis pelvic area
sectional anatomy: pubis anterior pelvis
sectional anatomy: inguen groin
sectional anatomy: femur thigh
sectional anatomy: crus anterior leg
sectional anatomy: sura calf
sectional anatomy: tarsus ankle
sectional anatomy: pes foot
sectional anatomy: planta sole of foot
anatomical position/directions: proximal toward the point
anatomical position/directions: distal away from the point
anatomical position/directions: medial towards the midline
anatomical position/directions: lateral out from the midline
anatomical position/directions: cranial or cephalic toward the head
anatomical position/directions: anterior/ventral the front
anatomical position/directions: posterior/dorsal the back
anatomical position/directions: caudal toward the tail; coccyx in humans
anatomical position/directions: superficial toward the body surface
anatomical position/directions: deep toward the interior of the body
cuts: midsagital down the middle
cuts: parasagital up and down but not exactly in middle
cuts: transverse horizontal
cuts: frontal(coronal) cut into front and back
body cavities: pleural lungs
body cavaties: mediastinal heart
signs can be measured or observed
symptom can not be observed (ex. pain on a scale of 1-10)
Created by: Lacey1



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