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Chapt1-3 study stack

Chapt 3 Cells

Active Transport Process that uses metabolic energy to move a substance across a cell membrane, usually against the concentration gradient
Anaphase Stage in mitosis when duplicate chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell
Cell membrane Selectively permeable outer boundary of a cell consisting of a phospolipid bilayer embedded with proteins; plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane
Centriole Cellular organelle built of microtubules that organize mitotic spindle
Centromere Portion of chromosome to which spindle fibers attach during mitosis
Centrosome Cellular organelle consisting of two centrioles
Chromatid One-half of a replicated chromosome or a single unreplicated chromosome
Chromatin DNA and complexed protein that condenses to form chromosomes during mitosis
Chromosome Rodlike structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell's nucleus during mitosis
Cilia Microscopic, hairlike processes on exposed surfaces of certain epithelial cells
Cytoplasm Contents of a cell, excluding the nucleus and cell membrane
Differentiation Cell specialization due to differential gene expression
Diffusion Random movement of molecules from region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration
Endocytosis Process by which a cell membrane envelops a substance and draws it into the cell in a vesicle
Endoplasmic Reticulum Organelle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein is synthesized
Exocytosis Transport of substances out of a cell in vesicles
Facilitated diffusion Diffusion in which carrier molecules transport substances across membranes from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Filtration Movement of material across a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure
Golgi Apparatus An organelles that prepares cellular products for secretion
Hyperplasia Increased production and growth of new cells
Hypertonic Describes a solution containing a greater concentration of dissolved particles than the solution with which it is compared
Insulin Hormone that pancreatic islets of Langerhans secrete to control carbohydrate metabolism
Interphase Period between two cell divisions when a cell is carrying on its normal functions and prepares for division
Isotonic Describes a solution with the same concentration of dissolved particles as the solution with which it is compared
Leukocyte white blood cell
Lysosome Organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Meiosis Cell division that halves the genetic material, resulting in egg and sperm cells
Metaphase Stage in mitosis when chromosomes align in the middle of the cell
Microfilament Tiny rod of actin protein in cytoplasm that provides structural support and movement
Microtubule Minute, hollow rod of the protein tubulin
Mitochondria Organelle housing enzymes that catalyze reactions of aerobic respiration
Mitosis Division of a somatic cell to form two genetically identical cells
Myofibril Contractile fibers within muscle cells
Nucleolus Small structure within cell nucleus that contains RNA and proteins
Nucleus Cellular organelle enclosed by double-layered, porous membrane and containing DNA; dense core of atom composed of protons and neutrons
Osmosis Diffusion of water through selectively permeable membrane in response to concentration gradient
Osmotic Pressure Amount of pressure required to stop osmosis; a sloution's potential pressure caused by nondiffusible solute particles in the solution
Phagocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs and digests solid substances
Pinocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs droplets from its surroundings
prenatal before birth
prophase the stage of mitosis when chromosomes become visible
Ribosome organelle composed of RNA and protein that is a structural support for protein synthesis
Selectively permeable Describes membrane that allows some molecules through but not others; semipermeable
Telophase Stage in mitosis when newly formed cells separate
Vesicle Membranous cytoplasmic sac formed by infolding of cell membrane
The body consists of ___ trillion cells 75
Cells are common but vary in ___ and ____ structure and function
Different functions of a cell are made possible by.... 3D form
Regulates the movement of substance in and out of cells and helps cells adhere to other cells Cell membrane
When cells adhere to other cells,they form ___ tissue
Cytoplasm consists of a clear liquid called ____ cytosol
Cytoplasm has a framework called a _______ ______ phospholipid bilayer
Functions in the synthesis and transport of molecules Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough ER has ____ that make protein ribosomes
Smooth ER functions are to... synthesize lipids and aid in absorption
Produce protein and RNA Ribosomes
Packages cell products for safe transport Golgi apparatus
Sites of chemical reactions...captures and stores energy as ATP needed for aerobic respiration Mitochondria
Contain enzymes to break up old cell components and bacteria Lysosome
Particle distribution from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration to become evenly distributed Diffusion
Water is the substance that moves osmosis
Uses membrane proteins called transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane Facilitated Diffusion
A solution with the same osmotic pressure as body fluids is isotonic (higher osmotic pressure is called hypertonic and lower osmotic pressure is called hypotonic) Tonicity
Tissue fluid forms when water is forced out of the thin porous walls of blood capillaries, but blood stays in Edema
Is the process by which cells develop into different types of cells with specialized functions Differentiation
Control differentiation progenitor cells
The death of a cell that is a normal part of the development apoptosis
Provide energy for cellular activities and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are made from ______ and ______ monosaccharides and disaccharides
Monosaccharides simple sugers
Disaccharides two monosaccharides joined together
Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) built of many sugars (Ex: starch)
Humans synthesize the polysaccharide _______ glycogen
Organic substances that include fats, phospholipids, and steroids Lipids
Supply energy for cellular function fats
Fats are built from _______ and three ____________ glycerol / fatty acids
Fatty acids with hydrogen at every position along the carbon chain are _________ saturated
Fatty acids with one or more double bonds are called __________ ____ unsaturated fats
Contains glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group, and are important in cell structures phospholipid
complex ring structures and include cholesterol which is used to synthesize the sex hormones Steroids
Have a great variety of functions in the body (structural materials, energy sources, certain hormones, receptors on cell membranes, antibodies) proteins
Proteins contain the elements... Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen atoms
Building blocks of proteins are the _____ ____ amino acids
Proteins have complex shapes held together by _____ _____ hydrogen bonds
Why didn't the skeleton go to the party? He had no body to go with!
Protein shapes determine how proteins _____ function
Protein shapes can be altered (denatured) by __, _______, ________, or __________ PH / temperature / radiation / chemicals
Why was the scarecrow given an award? Because he was outstanding in his field!
Form genes and take part in protein synthesis Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids contain...___, ____, ____, ____, and ____ carbon / hydrogen / oxygen / nitrogen / and phosporus
Building blocks of nucleic acids nucleotides
Each nucleotide consists of a... 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and one of many nitrogen bases
Two major types of nucleic acid DNA and RNA
Functions in protein synthesis RNA
Store the molecular code in genes DNA
Oh my gosh this is taking forever. Why do we have so many notessss
Deals with the structure of the body and its parts Anatomy
Studies the functions of these parts Physiology
Levels of organization atom --> molecule --> organelle --> cell --> tissue --> organ --> organ systems --> organism
10 characteristics of life movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, excretion
Life depends on the availability of... Water, food, oxygen, heat, and pressure
Maintenance of a stable internal environment homeostasis
Receptors, effectors, and a set point Control systems meant to help regulate homeostasis
Integumentary system (Skin, hair, nails) Protects underlying tissues, regulates, body temp, senses changes, synthesizes certain products
Skeletal system (Bone and ligaments) framework, stability for limbs, houses blood-forming tissues, stores inorganic salts
Muscular system (muscles) posture, movement, body heat
Nervous system (Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs) Integrates info and sends impulses
Endocrine system (Hormones, secreting glands) Integrate metabolic functions
Digestive systen (Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, accessory organs) Receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients
Respiratory system (lungs and passageways) Exchanges gases between blood and air
Circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) distributes oxygen and nutrients, removes wastes
Lymphatic system (lymphatic vessels, nodes, thymus, and spleen) drains excess tissue fluid, cells of immunity
Urinary system (Kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra) removes wasted from the blood and maintains water and electrolyte balance
Reproductive system (all the sexy organs and junk) used to manufacture little humans
A body part is above another part Superior
Opposite of superior. A body part is below another part Inferior
Means the same as ventral in humans. Towards the front Anterior
Means the same as dorsal in humans. Towards the back Posterior
Towards the middle Medial
Towards the side Lateral
Is in reference to another part. It means closer to the point of origin. Proximal
It means farther from the point of origin Distal
Situated near to the surface Superficial
Situated away from the surface Deep
Divides the body into left and right portions Sagittal
Centrally divides the body into left and right portions Midsagittal
Divides the body into superior and inferior portions (Horizontal) Transverse
divides the body into anterior and posterior Frontal or coronal
Created by: DarkPeriwinkle