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68C Pharma. Ph.1 T.9

Introduction to Medication Administration ppt.

Absorption when active ingredient of drug enters bodyfluids
adverse reaction harmful, unintended reaction to a drug administered at a normal dose
antagonist drug that will block action of another drug
distribution transport of drug by blood stream to site of action
dose single administration of drug, given at one time
dosage amount of medication prescribed for client by physician in given amount of time or at given frequency
excretion drugs eliminated from body, primarily through kidneys
idiosyncratic response individuals unique hypersensitivity to particular drug. unexpected response to a medication
incompatibility when some drugs do not combine chemically or physically with other drugs. Signs include: changes in color,haziness,precipiate
lethal dose amount of drug that will cause death
maximal dose largest amount of drug that can be given safely
medication (drug) interations when one medication modifies/alters action of another medication; may produce totally different effect than expected effect of either drug, beneficial or harmful
metabolism (biotransformation) process by which drug is broken down by liver to inactive compounds (metabolites) through series of chemical reactions
minimal dose smallest amount of drug that produces therapeutic effect
pharmacology study of drugs and their action on the living body
pharmaceutical phase from manufacture of drug until administration and absorption by body
pharmacokinetic phase involves movement of drug's active ingredients from body fluids into entire system and to site of intended action (what body does to drug molecules)
synergism one drug increases action of effect of another drug; called potentiation
therapeutic effects beneficial,expected or predictable physiological response that a medication causes
toxic dose amount of drug that produces signs and symptoms of poisoning
toxic effects develop after prolonged intake of medication or when medication accumulates in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion
Drugs may be known by 3 different names a. chemical b. generic c.trade
generic name assigned by manufacturer, first develops the drug before becomes official. used in most official drug compendium listings, name not capitalized, more common in hospitals ie acetaminophen
trade name brand name, drugs registered trademark given by manufacturer. First letter capitalized, easy to pronounce. brand name more common, followed by trademark ie Tylenol TM
accountability of controlled substances a.handled by person c license b.double-locked c.special inventory records d.both nurses sign
narcotic wasting only part of premeasured dosage given, client refuses after its been signed out and prepared. 2nd nurse witness disposal form
Factors affecting drug activity age, weight, physical health, psychological status, food in stomach, dosage form, gender
enteral administration administered along any portion of GI tract, absorbed more slowly, solid/liquid preparations
Enteral routes PO, Tubal, Suppository, Enema
Tablet forms Caplets, Scored tablet, enteric coated tablet
capsules powders/pellets enclosed in gelatin-like, elongated form> always administered whole, sustained/timed release never divided or crushed
Liquids syrups,elixers, shake prior to pouring, less than 5mL use oral syringe for measurement
percutaneous administration administered through skin/mucous membranes ie lotions, ointments, transdermal patches
ways of percutaneous administration a.topical b.instillation (sublingual,buccal) c.inhalation
parenteral administration methods other than digestive route, NEEDLE> ampules,vials
Routes of Parenteral administration IM, IV, ID, SubQ
intramuscular injection 20-22g, more than 1mL give in buttocks, inserted at 90 degrees, if 5mL divide into 2 doses, 1 1/4 commonly used
Gluteal muscles/ventrogluteal landmarks! use upper outer quadrant. 3 landmarks a.greater trochanter b.anterior iliac spine c.iliac crest
vastus lateralis muscle site for children under 3, up to 3mL in adult, 1-1.5 in for adult, 1 1/4 common
Deltoid muscle 3 fingers below shoulder joint, 1 in, no more than 1mL
subcutaneous (SQ or SC) method requires slower absorption rate than IM ie insulin. needle length .5in-7/8inch (23 to 25g) inject no more than 1.0 mL volume, 45 degree angle
intradermal (ID) injection 1mL tuberculin syringe, dermis at 15 degrees, 26g, 1/4-1/2 inch
6 R's Medication,Dose,Time,Route,Patient, Documentation
Three times medication is checked? a.taking from storage area b.removing medication from container c.after pouring medication
Components of a medication label a.generic name b.trade name c.dosage strength d.form e.route of administration f.total volume g.amount in container h.combined medication labels
Created by: ajwildasin30