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Cell Anatomy

2113L McKinney

plasma membrane / cell membrane physical boundary separates the extracellular fluid surrounding the cell from the cell interior. Regulates movement of ions, molecules & other substances into & out of cell.
extracellular fluid fluid outside the cell
nucleus central structure that encases and proects the chromosomes; controls protein synthesis, gene action, cell division, metabolic rate
organelles all internal structures
cytoplasm volume inside the plasma membrane but outside the nucleus. Made up of solid components; organelles except nucleus; suspended in liquid - cytosol
cytosol just the liquid part of cytoplasm
nonmembranous organelles directly exposed to cytosol: ribosomes; microvilli; centrioles; cytoskeleton; cilia; and flagella
membranous organelles enclosed in phospholipid membrane that isolates them from cytosol: nucleus; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus; lysosomes; peroxisomes, mitochondria
microvilli small folds in the plasma membrane that increase the surface area of the cell to absorb extracellular material, nutrients, at a greater rate
centrioles paired organelles composed of microtubules which are small hollow tubes made of the protein tubulin; if cell division: replicate; one pair migrates to each pole of cell radiating spindle fibers from each that pull chromosomes of nucleus apart
centrosome area surrounding the pair of centrioles in a cell. Cell not dividing: one pair; dividing cell: replicates - 2 pair.
cytoskeleton made from microtubules; structural support and anchors organelles
cilia short hair-like projections that extend from the plasma membrane. Common to respiratory and reproductive systems
flagellum single, long projection for locomotion. Spermatozoon is the only human cell with it.
Ribosomes direct protein synthesis; consists of 1 large & 1 small subunit that clamp around mRNA molecule to coordinate protein synthesis
Free ribosomes occur in the cytoplasm
Fixed ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
chromatin uncoiled chromosomes consisting of DNA and protein molecules; responsible for dark appearance of nucleus in stained specimen
nuclear envelope surrounds the nuclear material; contains pores through which instruction molecules from nucleus pass into cytosol
nucleolus produces ribosomal RNA molecules for the creation of ribosomes; darker stained region inside nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum surrounds the nucleus; functions in the synthesis of organic molecules, transport of materials within cell, storage of molecules. Materials may pass into Golgi apparatus for transport out of cell
rough ER has ribosomes attached to surface; proteins produced in ribosomes on outer surface enter and assume the complex folded shape of ER.
Smooth ER lacks ribosomes; involved in synthesis of many organic molecules such as cholesterol and phospholipids. in reproductive cells, it produces sex hormones; in liver cells synthesizes & stores glycogen; muscle & nerve cells - stores Ca++
Golgi apparatus series of flattened saccules adjoining the ER; ER may pass protein molecules in transport vesicles here for modification & secretion; cell products such as mucus are synthesized, packaged and secreted by this
exocytosis process where small secretory vesicles pinch off the saccules of the Golgi apparatus, fuse with the plasma membrane, then rupture; release contents into extracellular fluid. Phospholipid membranes of empty vesicles contribute to renewal of plasma membrane
lysosomes vesicles produced by Golgi apparatus; filled with powerful enzymes that digest worn-out cell components & destroy microbes; some dissolved material is used to rebuild organelles. White blood cells trap bacteria & release these to digest bacteria
peroxisomes vesicles filled with enzymes that break down fatty acids and other organic molecules; metabolize H2O2 - hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water
mitochondria produce useful energy; is wrapped in double layer phospholipid membrane. Inner layer is fingerlike (cristae). Metabolic enzymes passed along cristae to produce ATP. Muscles & nerve have many of these. Mature red blood cells lack & have low metabolic rate
mitosis chromatin in the nucleus condenses into chromosomes & is equally divided between the two forming cells. each daughter cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes
cytokinesis occurs toward end of mitosis; separates the cytoplasm to produce the two daughter cells
Interphase most of the time cell is not dividing and is in interphase: carries out various functions and prepares for division; nucleus visible & darker nucleolus; G0 phase, G1 phase, S phase; G2 phase
G0 phase cell performs its specialized functions; is not preparing to divide (interphase)
G1 phase protein synthesis, growth, replication of organelles, including the centriole pair (interphase)
S phase replication of DNA; afterward each chromosome is double stranded and consists of two chromatids; 1 chromatid is original strand, other is an identical copy. Chromatids held together by centromere (interphase)
G2 phase another time for protein synthesis; by now replication of the centriole pair is complete
M phase is the time of mitosis, nuclear material divides. Prophases; metaphase; anaphase; telophase
Prophase chromosomes visible in nucleus; chromosomes start long & disorganized; nuclear envelope breaks down; chromosomes shorten, go to center; 2 centriole pairs start go opposite sides ; microtubules fan as spindle fibers from centrioles across cell. (mitosis)
Metaphase chromosomes line up in middle at metaphase plate; spindle fibers across cell pole-to-pole & attach to centromeres of chromosomes; (mitosis)
Anaphase separation of chromosomes! spindle fibers pull apart chromatids of chromosome, drag to opposite poles; individual chromatids = chromosomes; cleavage furrow develops; plasma membrane pinches; cytokinesis end of this phase (mitosis)
Telophase cytokinesis partitions cytoplasm of cell; mitosis nears completion; each batch of chromosomes unwinds inside new nuclear envelope; each daughter has set organelles & nucleus with complete set of genes; daughter cells begin in interphase (mitosis)
Created by: pchambe6



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